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Dynamic Relationships among CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, and Economic Complexity in France


  • Can, Muhlis
  • Gozgor, Giray


Environmental degradation is most often brought to the agenda by arousing the attention of scholars, and there has been an increase in the studies on this issue. This paper re-estimates the environmental Kuznets curve in France over the period of 1964–2011. To this end, the unit root test with one structural break and a cointegration analysis with multiple endogenous structural breaks are considered. The impacts of the energy consumption and the economic complexity on CO2 emissions are also included in dynamic empirical models. First, it is found that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid in France in both the short and the long run. Second, the positive impact of energy consumption on CO2 emissions is also observed in the long run. Third, it is observed that a higher economic complexity suppresses CO2 emissions in the long run. The evidence suggests important environmental policy implications to suppress CO2 emissions in France.

Suggested Citation

  • Can, Muhlis & Gozgor, Giray, 2016. "Dynamic Relationships among CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, and Economic Complexity in France," MPRA Paper 70373, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:70373

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    Cited by:

    1. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shafiullah, Muhammad & Papavassiliou, Vassilios & Hammoudeh, Shawkat, 2017. "The CO2-Growth nexus revisited: A nonparametric analysis for G7 economies over nearly two centuries," MPRA Paper 79019, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 May 2017.
    2. Gozgor, Giray & Can, Muhlis, 2016. "Does Export Product Quality Matter for CO2 Emissions? Evidence from China," MPRA Paper 71873, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. repec:eee:eneeco:v:65:y:2017:i:c:p:183-193 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    environmental Kuznets curve; energy consumption; economic complexity; time series modeling; structural breaks; French economy;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q55 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Technological Innovation
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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