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Money and Credit as Means of Payment: A New Monetarist Approach

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  • Lotz, Sebastien
  • Zhang, Cathy

Abstract

This paper studies the choice of payment instruments in a simple model where both money and credit can be used as means of payment. We endogenize the acceptability of credit by allowing retailers to invest in a costly record-keeping technology. Our framework captures the two-sided market interaction between consumers and retailers, leading to strategic complementarities that can generate multiple steady-state equilibria. In addition, limited commitment makes debt contracts self-enforcing and yields an endogenous upper bound on credit use. So long as record-keeping is imperfect, money and credit coexist for a range of nominal interest rates. Our model captures the dependence of debt limits on monetary policy and explains how hold-up problems in technological adoption prevent retailers from accepting credit as consumers continue to coordinate on cash usage. With limited commitment, changes in monetary policy generate multiplier effects in the credit market due to complementarities between consumer borrowing and the adoption of credit by merchants.

Suggested Citation

  • Lotz, Sebastien & Zhang, Cathy, 2015. "Money and Credit as Means of Payment: A New Monetarist Approach," MPRA Paper 64535, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:64535
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    Cited by:

    1. Guillaume Rocheteau & Randall Wright & Cathy Zhang, 2018. "Corporate Finance and Monetary Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 108(4-5), pages 1147-1186, April.
    2. Sébastien Lotz & Françoise Vasselin, 2019. "A New Monetarist Model Of Fiat And E‐Money," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 57(1), pages 498-514, January.
    3. Ohik Kwon & Manjong Lee, 2016. "Credit Market Frictions and Coessentiality of Money and Credit," Discussion Paper Series 1602, Institute of Economic Research, Korea University.
    4. Gomis-Porqueras Pedro & Sun Ching-Jen, 2020. "Fiat Money as a Public Signal, Medium of Exchange, and Punishment," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 20(2), pages 1-11, June.
    5. Araujo, Luis & Hu, Tai-Wei, 2018. "Optimal monetary interventions in credit markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 455-487.
    6. Tai-Wei Hu & Luis Araujo, 2015. "Optimal Monetary Interventions in Credit Markets," 2015 Meeting Papers 176, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    7. Françoise Vasselin, 2018. "The Competition Between Cash and Mobile Payments in Markets with Mobile Partnerships A Monetary Search Model Point of View," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-01722404, HAL.
    8. Bethune, Zachary & Hu, Tai-Wei & Rocheteau, Guillaume, 2018. "Indeterminacy in credit economies," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 175(C), pages 556-584.
    9. Liu, Tao & Lu, Dong & Woo, Wing Thye, 2019. "Trade, finance and international currency," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 374-413.
    10. Choi, Hyung Sun, 2019. "Money, debit card, gross-settlement risk, and central banking," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).
    11. Guillaume Rocheteau & Tsz-Nga Wong & Cathy Zhang, 2018. "Lending Relationships and Optimal Monetary Policy," Purdue University Economics Working Papers 1306, Purdue University, Department of Economics.
    12. Liang Wang & Randall Wright & Lucy Qian Liu, 2020. "Sticky Prices And Costly Credit," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 61(1), pages 37-70, February.
    13. Lucy Qian Liu & Liang Wang & Randall Wright, 2015. "Costly Credit and Sticky Prices," Working Papers 201505, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
    14. Janet Hua Jiang & Enchuan Shao, 2020. "The Cash Paradox," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 36, pages 177-197, April.
    15. Paola Boel & Christopher J. Waller, 2020. "On the Essentiality of Credit and Banking at the Friedman Rule," Working Papers 2020-018, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    16. Françoise Vasselin, 2018. "The Competition Between Cash and Mobile Payments in Markets with Mobile Partnerships A Monetary Search Model Point of View," Working Papers hal-01722404, HAL.
    17. Chao Gu & Randall Wright, 2016. "Monetary Mechanisms," Working Papers 1601, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
    18. Chao Gu & Fabrizio Mattesini & Randall Wright, 2015. "Money and Credit Redux," Working Papers 1508, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
    19. Luis Araujo & Leo Ferraris, 2019. "The Societal Benefits of Money and Interest Bearing Debt," CEIS Research Paper 453, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 19 Feb 2019.
    20. Mohammed Ait Lahcen & Pedro Gomis-Porqueras, 2018. "A model of endogenous financial inclusion: implications for inequality and monetary policy," ECON - Working Papers 310, Department of Economics - University of Zurich, revised Jul 2019.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    money and credit; limited commitment; endogenous record-keeping;

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers

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