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Money and Costly Credit

  • Mei Dong
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I study an economy in which money and credit coexist as means of payment and the settlement of credit requires money. The model extends recent developments in microfounded monetary theory to address the choice of payment methods and the effects of inflation. Whether a buyer uses money or credit depends on the fixed cost of credit and the inflation rate. In particular, inflation not only makes money less valuable, but also makes credit more expensive because of delayed settlement. Based on quantitative analysis, the model suggests that the relationship between inflation and credit exhibits an inverse U-shape which is broadly consistent with anecdotal evidence. Compared to an economy without credit, allowing credit as a means of payment has three implications: [1] it lowers money demand at low to moderate inflation rates; [2] it improves society’s welfare when the inflation rate exceeds a specific threshold; and [3] it can raise the welfare cost of inflation for some reasonable values of the credit cost parameter.

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File URL: http://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/wp11-7.pdf
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Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 11-7.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:11-7
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  1. John Boyd & Bruce Champ, 2003. "Inflation and financial market performance: what have we learned in the last ten years," Working Paper 0317, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  2. Aleksander Berentsen & Gabriele Camera & Christopher Waller, . "Money, Credit and Banking," IEW - Working Papers 219, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  3. Miquel Faig & Belen Jerez, 2006. "Precautionary Balances and the Velocity of Circulation of Money," 2006 Meeting Papers 457, Society for Economic Dynamics.
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  5. Cavalcanti, Ricardo de O & Wallace, Neil, 1999. "Inside and Outside Money as Alternative Media of Exchange," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(3), pages 443-57, August.
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  7. Irina A. Telyukova & Randall Wright, 2006. "A Model of Money and Credit, with Application to the Credit Card Debt Puzzle," 2006 Meeting Papers 45, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  8. Stockman, Alan C., 1981. "Anticipated inflation and the capital stock in a cash in-advance economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 387-393.
  9. Mills, David C., 2007. "A Model In Which Outside And Inside Money Are Essential," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(03), pages 347-366, June.
  10. Williamson, Stephen & Sanches, Daniel, 2009. "Money and Credit With Limited Commitment and Theft," MPRA Paper 20690, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Sun, Hongfei, 2007. "Banking, Inside Money and Outside Money," MPRA Paper 4504, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. S. Rao Aiyagari & R. Anton Braun & Zvi Eckstein, 1998. "Transaction services, inflation, and welfare," Staff Report 241, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  13. John V. Duca & William C. Whitesell, 1991. "Credit cards and money demand: a cross-sectional study," Research Paper 9112, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  14. Benjamin Lester & Andrew Postlewaite & Randall Wright, 2008. "Information, Liquidity and Asset Prices," PIER Working Paper Archive 08-039, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  15. Ferraris, Leo, 2010. "On the complementarity of money and credit," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(5), pages 733-741, July.
  16. Monnet, Cyril & Roberds, William, 2008. "Optimal pricing of payment services," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(8), pages 1428-1440, November.
  17. Bullard, James & Keating, John W., 1995. "The long-run relationship between inflation and output in postwar economies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 477-496, December.
  18. Freeman, Scott & Huffman, Gregory W, 1991. "Inside Money, Output, and Causality," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 32(3), pages 645-67, August.
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