IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/8943.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Network Externalities and Technology Adoption: Lessons from Electronic Payments

Author

Listed:
  • Gautam Gowrisankaran
  • Joanna Stavins

Abstract

We seek to analyze the extent and sources of network externalities for the automated clearinghouse (ACH) electronic payments system using a quarterly panel data set on individual bank adoption and usage of ACH. We provide three methods to identify network externalities using this panel data. The first method identifies network externalities from the clustering of ACH adoption. The second method identifies them by examining whether banks in areas with higher market concentration or larger competitors are more likely to adopt ACH. The third method identifies them by examining whether the ACH adoption by small branches of large banks affects the adoption by local competitors. Using fixed effects and panel data these methods separately identify network externalities from technological advancement, peer-group effects, economies of scale and market power. We find evidence that the network externalities are moderately large.

Suggested Citation

  • Gautam Gowrisankaran & Joanna Stavins, 2002. "Network Externalities and Technology Adoption: Lessons from Electronic Payments," NBER Working Papers 8943, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8943
    Note: PR
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8943.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Joseph Farrell & Garth Saloner, 1985. "Standardization, Compatibility, and Innovation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(1), pages 70-83, Spring.
    2. Garth Saloner & Andrea Shepard, 1995. "Adoption of Technologies with Network Effects: An Empirical Examination of the Adoption of Teller Machines," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(3), pages 479-501, Autumn.
    3. Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1986. "Technology Adoption in the Presence of Network Externalities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 822-841, August.
    4. Goolsbee, Austan & Klenow, Peter J, 2002. "Evidence on Learning and Network Externalities in the Diffusion of Home Computers," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 317-343, October.
    5. Marc Rysman, 2004. "Competition Between Networks: A Study of the Market for Yellow Pages," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 71(2), pages 483-512.
    6. Neil Gandal, 1994. "Hedonic Price Indexes for Spreadsheets and an Empirical Test for Network Externalities," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(1), pages 160-170, Spring.
    7. William Roberds, 1998. "The impact of fraud on new methods of retail payment," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, vol. 83(Q 1), pages 42-52.
    8. Daniel A. Ackerberg & Gautam Gowrisankaran, 2006. "Quantifying equilibrium network externalities in the ACH banking industry," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 738-761, September.
    9. Neil Gandal & Michael Kende & Rafael Rob, 2000. "The Dynamics of Technological Adoption in Hardware/Software Systems: The Case of Compact Disc Players," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 31(1), pages 43-61, Spring.
    10. Shane M. Greenstein, 1993. "Did Installed Base Given an Incumbent Any (Measurable) Advantages in Federal Computer Procurement?," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(1), pages 19-39, Spring.
    11. Berndt, Ernst R. & Pindyck, Robert S. & Azoulay, Pierre, 1970-, 1998. "Network effects and diffusion in pharmaceutical markets : antiulcer drugs," Working papers WP 4059-98., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    12. Kirstin E. Wells, 1996. "Are checks overused?," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, vol. 20(Fall), pages 2-12.
    13. Charles F. Manski, 1993. "Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 531-542.
    14. Gary Chamberlain, 1980. "Analysis of Covariance with Qualitative Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 225-238.
    15. Bresnahan, Timothy F & Reiss, Peter C, 1991. "Entry and Competition in Concentrated Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 977-1009, October.
    16. John A. Weinberg, 1997. "The organization of private payment networks," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 25-44.
    17. Nicholas Economides & Charles Himmelberg, 1995. "Critical Mass and Network Size with Application to the US Fax Market," Working Papers 95-11, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    18. Myron L. Kwast & Martha Starr-McCluer & John D. Wolken, 1997. "Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Xiong, Hang & Payne, Diane & Kinsella, Stephen, 2016. "Peer effects in the diffusion of innovations: Theory and simulation," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-13.
    2. Daniel Birke, 2009. "The Economics Of Networks: A Survey Of The Empirical Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(4), pages 762-793, September.
    3. Ginger Zhe Jin & Marc Rysman, 2015. "Platform Pricing at Sports Card Conventions," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(4), pages 704-735, December.
    4. Heli Koski & Tobias Kretschmer, 2004. "Survey on Competing in Network Industries: Firm Strategies, Market Outcomes, and Policy Implications," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 5-31, March.
    5. Baraldi, A. Laura, 2008. "Network Externalities and Critical Mass in the Mobile Telephone Network: a Panel Data Estimation," MPRA Paper 13373, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Birke, Daniel & Swann, G.M. Peter, 2010. "Network effects, network structure and consumer interaction in mobile telecommunications in Europe and Asia," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 153-167, November.
    7. Belleflamme,Paul & Peitz,Martin, 2015. "Industrial Organization," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107687899, December.
    8. Knittel Christopher R. & Stango Victor, 2008. "Incompatibility, Product Attributes and Consumer Welfare: Evidence from ATMs," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-42, January.
    9. Luís Cabral, 2011. "Dynamic Price Competition with Network Effects," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(1), pages 83-111.
    10. Garcia-Swartz, Daniel D. & Garcia-Vicente, Florencia, 2015. "Network effects on the iPhone platform: An empirical examination," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 877-895.
    11. Goolsbee, Austan & Klenow, Peter J, 2002. "Evidence on Learning and Network Externalities in the Diffusion of Home Computers," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 317-343, October.
    12. Rojas, Christian, 2017. "How much is an incoming message worth? Estimating the call externality," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 23-37.
    13. Joanna Stavins, 2002. "Effect of consumer characteristics on the use of payment instruments," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Q 3, pages 19-31.
    14. Joachim Henkel & Jörn Block, 2013. "Peer influence in network markets: a theoretical and empirical analysis," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(5), pages 925-953, November.
    15. Wang, Jin, 2021. "Do birds of a feather flock together? Platform’s quality screening and end-users’ choices theory and empirical study of online trading platforms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    16. Scott K. Shriver, 2015. "Network Effects in Alternative Fuel Adoption: Empirical Analysis of the Market for Ethanol," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(1), pages 78-97, January.
    17. Dranove, David & Gandal, Neil, 2000. "The DVD vs. DIVX Standard War: Empirical Evidence of Vaporware," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt4961n0hj, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    18. Shanjun Li & Yiyi Zhou, 2015. "Dynamics of Technology Adoption and Critical Mass: The Case of U.S. Electric Vehicle Market," Working Papers 15-10, NET Institute.
    19. Ewald Scherm & Christian Maaß, 2006. "Zum Stellenwert der Netzwerkökonomik in der Strategie-/Marketingforschung —Eine Analyse empirischer Untersuchungen," Metrika: International Journal for Theoretical and Applied Statistics, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 27-46, March.
    20. Atip Asvanund & Karen Clay & Ramayya Krishnan & Michael D. Smith, 2004. "An Empirical Analysis of Network Externalities in Peer-to-Peer Music-Sharing Networks," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 15(2), pages 155-174, June.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8943. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.