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Network Effects and Diffusion in Pharmaceutical Markets: Antiulcer Drugs

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  • Ernst R. Berndt
  • Robert S. Pindyck
  • Pierre Azoulay

Abstract

We examine the role of network effects in the demand for pharmaceuticals at both the brand level and for a therapeutic class of drugs. These effects emerge when use of a drug by others conveys information about its efficacy and safety to patients and physicians. This can lead to herd behavior where a particular drug -- not necessarily the most efficacious or safest -- can come to dominate the market despite the availability of close substitutes, and can also affect the rate of market diffusion. Using data for H2-antagonist antiulcer drugs, we examine two aspects of these effects. First, we use hedonic price procedures to estimate how the aggregate usage of a drug affects brand valuation. Second, we estimate discrete-time diffusion models at both the industry and brand levels to measure the impact on rates of diffusion and market saturation.

Suggested Citation

  • Ernst R. Berndt & Robert S. Pindyck & Pierre Azoulay, 1999. "Network Effects and Diffusion in Pharmaceutical Markets: Antiulcer Drugs," NBER Working Papers 7024, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7024
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ernst R. Berndt & Linda T. Bui & David H. Lucking-Reiley & Glen L. Urban, 1996. "The Roles of Marketing, Product Quality, and Price Competition in the Growth and Composition of the U.S. Antiulcer Drug Industry," NBER Chapters,in: The Economics of New Goods, pages 277-328 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Zhao, Jinhua, 2005. "The Role of Information in Technology Adoption under Poverty," WIDER Working Paper Series 041, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Antonio Cabrales & Sergi Jiménez‐Martín, 2013. "The Determinants Of Pricing In Pharmaceuticals: Are Us Prices Really So High?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(11), pages 1377-1397, November.
    3. Goolsbee, Austan & Klenow, Peter J, 2002. "Evidence on Learning and Network Externalities in the Diffusion of Home Computers," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 317-343, October.
    4. Antonio Cabrales & Sergi Jiménez-Martín, 2007. "The determinants of pricing in pharmaceuticals: Are U.S. prices really higher than those of Canada?," Economics Working Papers 1032, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    5. Javier Coronado & Sergi Jiménez-Martín & Pedro Marín, 2014. "An empirical analysis of the multimarket contact theory in pharmaceutical markets," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 15(6), pages 623-643, July.
    6. K. Andersson & Ø Foros & F. Steen, 2009. "Text and voice: complements, substitutes or both?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(6), pages 1231-1247, December.
    7. Gautam Gowrisankaran & Joanna Stavins, 2004. "Network Externalities and Technology Adoption: Lessons from Electronic Payments," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(2), pages 260-276, Summer.
    8. Jonathan Skinner & Douglas Staiger, 2007. "Technology Adoption from Hybrid Corn to Beta-Blockers," NBER Chapters,in: Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches, pages 545-570 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Fang, Di & Richards, Timothy, 2016. "New Maize Variety Adoption in Mozambique: A Spatial Approach," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235388, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    10. Joan-Ramon Borrell, 2007. "Pricing and patents of HIV/AIDS drugs in developing countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(4), pages 505-518.
    11. Matthew Shum, 1998. "Characterizing Informational Barriers To Entry In The Anti-Ulcer Drug Market," Working Papers mshum-98-03, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    12. Desiraju, Ramarao & Nair, Harikesh S. & Chintagunta, Pradeep, 2004. "Diffusion of New Pharmaceutical Drugs in Developing and Developed Nations," Research Papers 1950, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    13. Joan-Ramon Borrell & Jayashree Watal, 2002. "Impact of Patents on Access to HIV/AIDS Drugs in Developing Countries," CID Working Papers 92, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    14. Moretto, Michele, 2000. "Irreversible investment with uncertainty and strategic behavior," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 589-617, December.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology; Plastics

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