Do Consumers' Preferences Really Matter? - A Note on Spatial Competition with Restricted Strategies
In the framework Hotelling-Downs competition two players can freely choose a position along a one-dimensional market. We introduce restrictions of feasible strategies and analyze the consequences for players and consumers. In equilibrium players may minimally differentiate away from the center of the market and even locate completely independently of consumers' preferences. We provide conditions for these novel cases as well as for the standard result that players locate on the median of the distribution of consumers. In addition to the short run, where restrictions are fixed, we elaborate on the long run by studying the players' choice of restrictions under (potential) market entry. In both settings, we find an inefficient outcome, in which a firm is capable of offering a product at the center of the market, but instead chooses a position that is worse for most of the consumers.
|Date of creation:||12 Apr 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Irmen, Andreas & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1998.
"Competition in Multi-characteristics Spaces: Hotelling Was Almost Right,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 76-102, January.
- Irmen, A. & Thisse, J.-F., . "Competition in multi-characteristics spaces: Hotelling was almost right," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1305, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Andreas IRMEN & Jean-François THISSE, 1996. "Competition in Multi-Characteristics Spaces: Hotelling Was Almost Right," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9613, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
- Irmen, Andreas & Thisse, Jacques-François, 1996. "Competition in Multi-characteristics Spaces: Hotelling was Almost Right," CEPR Discussion Papers 1446, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- IRMEN, Andreas & THISSE, Jacques-Francois, 1997. "Competition in multi-characteristics spaces: hotelling was almost right," CORE Discussion Papers 1997053, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Michal Król, 2011.
"Product differentiation decisions under ambiguous consumer demand and pessimistic expectations,"
The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series
1103, Economics, The University of Manchester.
- Król, Michał, 2012. "Product differentiation decisions under ambiguous consumer demand and pessimistic expectations," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 593-604.
- John R. Hauser, 1988. "Note—Competitive Price and Positioning Strategies," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 7(1), pages 76-91.
- Lisa M. George & Joel Waldfogel, 2006. "The New York Times and the Market for Local Newspapers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(1), pages 435-447, March.
- d'Aspremont, C & Gabszewicz, Jean Jaskold & Thisse, J-F, 1979.
"On Hotelling's "Stability in Competition","
Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1145-50, September.
- Amelio, Andrea & Jullien, Bruno, 2007.
"Tying and Freebies in Two-Sided Markets,"
IDEI Working Papers
445, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Waldfogel, Joel, 2008. "The median voter and the median consumer: Local private goods and population composition," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 567-582, March.
- Picone, Gabriel A. & Ridley, David B. & Zandbergen, Paul A., 2009. "Distance decreases with differentiation: Strategic agglomeration by retailers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 463-473, May.
- Richard J. Gilbert & Michael H. Riordan, 2007. "PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL TYING IN A WINNER-TAKE-ALL MARKET -super-* ," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 113-139, 03.
- Demange, Gabrielle, 1982. "Single-peaked orders on a tree," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 389-396, December.
- Eaton, B Curtis & Lipsey, Richard G, 1975.
"The Principle of Minimum Differentiation Reconsidered: Some New Developments in the Theory of Spatial Competition,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 27-49, January.
- B.Curtis Eaton & Richard G. Lipsey, 1972. "The Principle of Minimum Differentiation Reconsidered: Some New Developments in the Theory of Spatial Competition," Working Papers 87, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Schipper, Youdi & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 2007. "Deregulation and welfare in airline markets: An analysis of frequency equilibria," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 178(1), pages 194-206, April.
- Panzar, John C, 1979. "Equilibrium and Welfare in Unregulated Airline Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(2), pages 92-95, May.
- Alain Egli, 2007. "On Stability in Competition: Tying and Horizontal Product Differentiation," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 29-38, February.
- Anthony Downs, 1957. "An Economic Theory of Political Action in a Democracy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65, pages 135.
- Larry Samuelson, 1984. "Electoral equilibria with restricted strategies," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 307-327, January.
- Hummel, Patrick, 2010. "Flip-flopping from primaries to general elections," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(11-12), pages 1020-1027, December.
- Radner, Roy, 1980. "Collusive behavior in noncooperative epsilon-equilibria of oligopolies with long but finite lives," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 136-154, April.
- Anderson, Simon P & Glomm, Gerhard, 1992. " Incumbency Effects in Political Campaigns," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 74(2), pages 207-19, September.
- Simon Loertscher & Gerd Muehlheusser, 2011. "Sequential location games," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 42(4), pages 639-663, December.
- Economides, Nicholas, 1986. "Minimal and maximal product differentiation in Hotelling's duopoly," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 67-71.
- Dixon, Huw, 1987. "Approximate Bertrand Equilibria in a Replicated Industry," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(1), pages 47-62, January.
- Barreda-Tarrazona, Iván & García-Gallego, Aurora & Georgantzís, Nikolaos & Andaluz-Funcia, Joaquín & Gil-Sanz, Agustín, 2011. "An experiment on spatial competition with endogenous pricing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 74-83, January.
- Edward C. Prescott & Michael Visscher, 1977. "Sequential Location among Firms with Foresight," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 8(2), pages 378-393, Autumn.
- Wayne DeSarbo & Vithala R. Rao, 1986. "A Constrained Unfolding Methodology for Product Positioning," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19.
- Nehring, Klaus & Puppe, Clemens, 2007. "The structure of strategy-proof social choice -- Part I: General characterization and possibility results on median spaces," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 135(1), pages 269-305, July.
- Berno Buechel & Nils Roehl, 2013.
"Robust Equilibria in Location Games,"
Working Papers Dissertations
03, University of Paderborn, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.
- Hehenkamp, Burkhard & Wambach, Achim, 2010. "Survival at the center--The stability of minimum differentiation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 853-858, December.
- Sumon Datta & K. Sudhir, 2013. "Does reducing spatial differentiation increase product differentiation? Effects of zoning on retail entry and format variety," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 83-116, March.
- Meagher, Kieron J. & Zauner, Klaus G., 2004. "Product differentiation and location decisions under demand uncertainty," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 201-216, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:55288. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.