Tying and freebies in two-sided markets
In two-sided markets where platforms are constrained to set non-negative prices, tying can be deployed by platforms as a tool to introduce implicit subsidies. For a monopoly, this raises participation and benefits consumers on both sides. In a duopoly, tying on one side makes a platform more or less competitive on the other side depending on externalities. Tying may not be ex-ante optimal while the competing platform may benefit from it. The impact on consumers' surplus depends on whether competition is softened or intensified on the profitable side. Moreover tying increases total welfare if network effects are strong.
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References listed on IDEAS
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- Jay Pil Choi, 2010. "TYING IN TWO-SIDED MARKETS WITH MULTI-HOMING -super-* ," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(3), pages 607-626, 09.
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- Rochet Jean-Charles & Tirole Jean, 2003. "An Economic Analysis of the Determination of Interchange Fees in Payment Card Systems," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 2(2), pages 1-11, June.
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- Schmalensee, Richard, 1984. "Gaussian Demand and Commodity Bundling," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(1), pages S211-30, January.
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"Tying, Foreclosure, and Exclusion,"
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2995, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bruno Jullien, 2011. "Competition in Multi-sided Markets: Divide and Conquer," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(4), pages 186-220, November.
- Amelio, Andrea & Jullien, Bruno, 2007.
"Tying and Freebies in Two-Sided Markets,"
IDEI Working Papers
445, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Caillaud, Bernard & Jullien, Bruno, 2003. " Chicken & Egg: Competition among Intermediation Service Providers," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(2), pages 309-28, Summer.
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