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A gravity model of virtual water trade

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  • Fracasso, Andrea

Abstract

This work investigates the determinants of virtual water trade (VWT) flows by means of an estimated gravity model of trade applied to the virtual water embodied in the agricultural goods exchanged across countries. In line with the recent literature on the gravity model, the paper presents a battery of estimation methods: cross-section and panel, OLS and pseudo maximum likelihood, with and without two-way fixed effects. The analysis shows that bilateral VWT flows are affected by the classical determinants of trade, but also by national water endowments as well as by the level of pressure on water resources. These general findings are robust, even though some variation can be observed across the estimation methods and, in particular, when smaller sub-samples of countries (such as continents and regional groups) are considered. This contributes to account for the mixed evidence in the literature on the importance of water endowments for the VWT flows.

Suggested Citation

  • Fracasso, Andrea, 2014. "A gravity model of virtual water trade," MPRA Paper 54124, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:54124
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Andrea Fracasso & Martina Sartori & Stefano Schiavo, 2014. "Determinants of Virtual Water Flows in the Mediterranean," IEFE Working Papers 75, IEFE, Center for Research on Energy and Environmental Economics and Policy, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    2. repec:eee:jrpoli:v:52:y:2017:i:c:p:107-113 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Marta Antonelli & Martina Sartori, 2014. "Unfolding the Potential of the Virtual Water Concept. What is still under debate?," IEFE Working Papers 74, IEFE, Center for Research on Energy and Environmental Economics and Policy, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    4. repec:spr:waterr:v:32:y:2018:i:8:d:10.1007_s11269-018-1941-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Mohamad Afkhami & Thomas Bassetti & Hamed Ghoddusi & Filippo Pavesi, 2018. "Virtual Water Trade: The Implications of Capital Scarcity," Working Papers 03/2018, University of Verona, Department of Economics.
    6. Andrea Fracasso & Massimo Riccabonii & Martina Sartori & Stefano Schiavo, 2017. "Modeling the future evolution of the virtual water trade network," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/4krkv5tkmp8, Sciences Po.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Virtual Water; Gravity Model of Trade;

    JEL classification:

    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • Q25 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Water
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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