IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Education inequality, economic growth, and income inequality: Evidence from Indonesia, 1996-2005


  • Digdowiseiso, Kumba


Abstract This paper examines the determinants of economic growth, income inequality, and their relationship in the context of education inequality. The econometric results from a cross-section analysis of 23 provinces in the period of 1996-2005 indicate that a higher level of human capital and the relative dispersion of human capital have a disequalizing effect on the income distribution. It also confirms that economic growth has strongly and significantly equalizing effect on the income distribution, supporting the complementarity relationship between equity and growth. In addition, human capital investment contributes significantly to the growth of economy. Therefore, in a bid to achieve egalitarian society with a more equitable distribution of income, economic policies should be more targeted at not only more education but also equal access to education.

Suggested Citation

  • Digdowiseiso, Kumba, 2009. "Education inequality, economic growth, and income inequality: Evidence from Indonesia, 1996-2005," MPRA Paper 17792, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:17792

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. De Gregorio, Jose & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2002. "Education and Income Inequality: New Evidence from Cross-Country Data," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(3), pages 395-416, September.
    2. Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 1997. "What Can New Survey Data Tell Us about Recent Changes in Distribution and Poverty?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(2), pages 357-382, May.
    3. Sarah Voitchovsky, 2005. "Does the Profile of Income Inequality Matter for Economic Growth?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 273-296, September.
    4. Oded Galor & Omer Moav, 2004. "From Physical to Human Capital Accumulation: Inequality and the Process of Development," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 71(4), pages 1001-1026.
    5. de la Croix, David & Licandro, Omar, 1999. "Life expectancy and endogenous growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 255-263, November.
    6. Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1998. "New ways of looking at old issues: inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 259-287.
    7. Bigsten , Arne & Levin, Jörgen, 2000. "Growth, Income Distribution, and Poverty: A Review," Working Papers in Economics 32, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    8. Birdsall, Nancy & Londono, Juan Luis, 1997. "Asset Inequality Matters: An Assessment of the World Bank's Approach to Poverty Reduction," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 32-37, May.
    9. Galor, Oded & Tsiddon, Daniel, 1997. "The Distribution of Human Capital and Economic Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 93-124, March.
    10. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    11. Winegarden, C R, 1979. "Schooling and Income Distribution: Evidence from International Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 46(181), pages 83-87, February.
    12. Fields, Gary S, 1989. "Changes in Poverty and Inequality in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 4(2), pages 167-185, July.
    13. Roland Benabou, 2002. "Tax and Education Policy in a Heterogeneous-Agent Economy: What Levels of Redistribution Maximize Growth and Efficiency?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(2), pages 481-517, March.
    14. Roland Bénabou, 1996. "Inequality and Growth," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1996, Volume 11, pages 11-92 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Easterly, William, 2001. "The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 317-335, December.
    16. Thomas, Vinod & Wang, Yan & Fan, Xibo, 2001. "Measuring education inequality - Gini coefficients of education," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2525, The World Bank.
    17. Kang Park, 1998. "Distribution and growth: cross-country evidence," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(7), pages 943-949.
    18. Daniele Checchi, 2000. "Does educational achievement help to explain income inequality?," Departmental Working Papers 2000-11, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    19. Thorvaldur Gylfason & Gylfi Zoega, 2003. "Education, Social Equality and Economic Growth: A View of the Landscape," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 49(4), pages 557-579.
    20. Park, Kang H., 1996. "Educational expansion and educational inequality on income distribution," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 51-58, February.
    21. David de la Croix & Matthias Doepke, 2003. "Inequality and Growth: Why Differential Fertility Matters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1091-1113, September.
    22. Andrew Goudie & Paul Ladd, 1999. "Economic growth, poverty and inequality," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(2), pages 177-195.
    23. Persson, Torsten & Tabellini, Guido, 1994. "Is Inequality Harmful for Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 600-621, June.
    24. Bruno, Michael & Ravallion, Martin & Squire, Lyn, 1996. "Equity and growth in developing countries : old and new perspectives on the policy issues," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1563, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Yu, Nannan & Yu, Bo & de Jong, Martin & Storm, Servaas, 2015. "Does inequality in educational attainment matter for China's economic growth?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 164-173.

    More about this item


    Education; Growth; Inequality; and Indonesia;

    JEL classification:

    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:17792. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.