IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/22247.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Granular Nature of Large Institutional Investors

Author

Listed:
  • Itzhak Ben-David
  • Francesco Franzoni
  • Rabih Moussawi
  • John Sedunov

Abstract

Large institutional investors own an increasing share of the equity markets in the U.S. The implications of this development for financial markets are still unclear. The paper presents novel empirical evidence that ownership by large institutions predicts higher volatility and greater noise in stock prices as well as greater fragility in times of crisis. When studying the channel, we find that large institutional investors exhibit traits of granularity, i.e., subunits within a firm display correlated behavior, which reduces diversification of idiosyncratic shocks. Thus, large institutions trade larger volumes and induce greater price impact.

Suggested Citation

  • Itzhak Ben-David & Francesco Franzoni & Rabih Moussawi & John Sedunov, 2016. "The Granular Nature of Large Institutional Investors," NBER Working Papers 22247, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22247
    Note: AP CF
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w22247.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Zoran Ivković & Scott Weisbenner, 2005. "Local Does as Local Is: Information Content of the Geography of Individual Investors' Common Stock Investments," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 267-306, February.
    2. Greenwood, Robin & Thesmar, David, 2011. "Stock price fragility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(3), pages 471-490.
    3. Kleibergen, Frank & Paap, Richard, 2006. "Generalized reduced rank tests using the singular value decomposition," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(1), pages 97-126, July.
    4. Söhnke M. Bartram & John M. Griffin & Tae-Hoon Lim & David T. Ng, 2015. "How Important Are Foreign Ownership Linkages for International Stock Returns?," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 28(11), pages 3036-3072.
    5. Giancarlo Corsetti & Amil Dasgupta & Stephen Morris & Hyun Song Shin, 2004. "Does One Soros Make a Difference? A Theory of Currency Crises with Large and Small Traders," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 71(1), pages 87-113.
    6. Ellul, Andrew, 2006. "Ripples through markets: Inter-market impacts generated by large trades," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 173-196, October.
    7. Nicolae Gârleanu & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2013. "Dynamic Trading with Predictable Returns and Transaction Costs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(6), pages 2309-2340, December.
    8. Franziska Bremus & Claudia M. Buch & Katheryn N. Russ & Monika Schnitzer, 2018. "Big Banks and Macroeconomic Outcomes: Theory and Cross‐Country Evidence of Granularity," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 50(8), pages 1785-1825, December.
    9. Lewellen, Jonathan, 2011. "Institutional investors and the limits of arbitrage," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 62-80, October.
    10. Augustin Landier & Guillaume Simon & David Thesmar, 2015. "The Capacity of Trading Strategies," Working Papers hal-02011394, HAL.
    11. Chotibhak Jotikasthira & Christian Lundblad & Tarun Ramadorai, 2012. "Asset Fire Sales and Purchases and the International Transmission of Funding Shocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(6), pages 2015-2050, December.
    12. Eric Ghysels & Alberto Plazzi & Rossen Valkanov, 2016. "Why Invest in Emerging Markets? The Role of Conditional Return Asymmetry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 71(5), pages 2145-2192, October.
    13. K. J. Martijn Cremers & Antti Petajisto, 2009. "How Active Is Your Fund Manager? A New Measure That Predicts Performance," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(9), pages 3329-3365, September.
    14. Joshua D. Angrist & Jörn-Steffen Pischke, 2009. "Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist's Companion," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 8769.
    15. Daniel, Kent, et al, 1997. "Measuring Mutual Fund Performance with Characteristic-Based Benchmarks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1035-1058, July.
    16. Imbens, Guido W & Angrist, Joshua D, 1994. "Identification and Estimation of Local Average Treatment Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(2), pages 467-475, March.
    17. Jun Kyung Auh & Jennie Bai, 2020. "Cross-Asset Information Synergy in Mutual Fund Families," NBER Working Papers 26626, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Martijn Cremers & Antti Petajisto, 2006. "How Active is Your Fund Manager? A New Measure That Predicts Performance," Yale School of Management Working Papers amz2370, Yale School of Management, revised 01 May 2009.
    19. Xavier Gabaix, 2011. "The Granular Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(3), pages 733-772, May.
    20. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy: A Discriminant Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(1), pages 193-194, March.
    21. Greenwood, Robin, 2005. "Short- and long-term demand curves for stocks: theory and evidence on the dynamics of arbitrage," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(3), pages 607-649, March.
    22. Coval, Joshua & Stafford, Erik, 2007. "Asset fire sales (and purchases) in equity markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 479-512, November.
    23. Utpal Bhattacharya & Jung H. Lee & Veronika K. Pool, 2013. "Conflicting Family Values in Mutual Fund Families," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(1), pages 173-200, February.
    24. Dong Lou, 2012. "A Flow-Based Explanation for Return Predictability," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(12), pages 3457-3489.
    25. Landier, Augustin & Sraer, David & Thesmar, David, 2017. "Banking integration and house price co-movement," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1), pages 1-25.
    26. Andrew Koch & Stefan Ruenzi & Laura Starks, 2016. "Editor's Choice Commonality in Liquidity: A Demand-Side Explanation," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(8), pages 1943-1974.
    27. Andy Puckett & Xuemin (Sterling) Yan, 2011. "The Interim Trading Skills of Institutional Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(2), pages 601-633, April.
    28. Allaudeen Hameed & Wenjin Kang & S. Viswanathan, 2010. "Stock Market Declines and Liquidity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 257-293, February.
    29. Giancarlo Corsetti & Paolo Pesenti & Nouriel Roubini, 2002. "The Role of Large Players in Currency Crises," NBER Chapters, in: Preventing Currency Crises in Emerging Markets, pages 197-268, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    30. Amihud, Yakov, 2002. "Illiquidity and stock returns: cross-section and time-series effects," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 31-56, January.
    31. Chiraphol N. Chiyachantana & Pankaj K. Jain & Christine Jiang & Robert A. Wood, 2004. "International Evidence on Institutional Trading Behavior and Price Impact," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 869-898, April.
    32. Baik, Bok & Kang, Jun-Koo & Kim, Jin-Mo, 2010. "Local institutional investors, information asymmetries, and equity returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 81-106, July.
    33. Karolyi, G. Andrew & Lee, Kuan-Hui & van Dijk, Mathijs A., 2012. "Understanding commonality in liquidity around the world," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 82-112.
    34. Tobias Adrian & Emanuel Moench & Hyun Song Shin, 2010. "Financial intermediation, asset prices, and macroeconomic dynamics," Staff Reports 422, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    35. Jones, Charles M. & Lipson, Marc L., 2001. "Sixteenths: direct evidence on institutional execution costs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 253-278, February.
    36. Blank, Sven & Buch, Claudia M. & Neugebauer, Katja, 2009. "Shocks at large banks and banking sector distress: The Banking Granular Residual," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 353-373, December.
    37. Amber Anand & Paul Irvine & Andy Puckett & Kumar Venkataraman, 2012. "Performance of Institutional Trading Desks: An Analysis of Persistence in Trading Costs," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(2), pages 557-598.
    38. Bushee, BJ & Noe, CF, 2000. "Corporate disclosure practices, institutional investors, and stock return volatility," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38, pages 171-202.
    39. Vikram Nanda, 2004. "Family Values and the Star Phenomenon: Strategies of Mutual Fund Families," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(3), pages 667-698.
    40. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-1335, November.
    41. José‐Miguel Gaspar & Massimo Massa & Pedro Matos, 2006. "Favoritism in Mutual Fund Families? Evidence on Strategic Cross‐Fund Subsidization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(1), pages 73-104, February.
    42. Shleifer, Andrei, 1986. "Do Demand Curves for Stocks Slope Down?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(3), pages 579-590, July.
    43. Yen-Cheng Chang & Harrison Hong & Inessa Liskovich, 2015. "Regression Discontinuity and the Price Effects of Stock Market Indexing," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 28(1), pages 212-246.
    44. Bernard Herskovic & Bryan Kelly & Hanno Lustig & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh, 2020. "Firm Volatility in Granular Networks," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 128(11), pages 4097-4162.
    45. Aragon, George O. & Strahan, Philip E., 2012. "Hedge funds as liquidity providers: Evidence from the Lehman bankruptcy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(3), pages 570-587.
    46. Daron Acemoglu & Vasco M. Carvalho & Asuman Ozdaglar & Alireza Tahbaz‐Salehi, 2012. "The Network Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(5), pages 1977-2016, September.
    47. Andrews,Donald W. K. & Stock,James H. (ed.), 2005. "Identification and Inference for Econometric Models," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521844413, November.
    48. Carhart, Mark M, 1997. "On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
    49. Huberman, Gur, 2001. "Familiarity Breeds Investment," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 659-680.
    50. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
    51. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis And The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(4), pages 589-609, September.
    52. Anand, Amber & Irvine, Paul & Puckett, Andy & Venkataraman, Kumar, 2013. "Institutional trading and stock resiliency: Evidence from the 2007–2009 financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(3), pages 773-797.
    53. Veronika K. Pool & Noah Stoffman & Scott E. Yonker, 2015. "The People in Your Neighborhood: Social Interactions and Mutual Fund Portfolios," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 70(6), pages 2679-2732, December.
    54. Harrison Hong & Jeffrey D. Kubik & Jeremy C. Stein, 2005. "Thy Neighbor's Portfolio: Word‐of‐Mouth Effects in the Holdings and Trades of Money Managers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(6), pages 2801-2824, December.
    55. repec:lmu:muenar:20226 is not listed on IDEAS
    56. Nicole M. Boyson & Christof W. Stahel & René M. Stulz, 2010. "Hedge Fund Contagion and Liquidity Shocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(5), pages 1789-1816, October.
    57. Piotroski, JD, 2000. "Value investing: The use of historical financial statement information to separate winners from losers," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38, pages 1-41.
    58. Joshua D. Coval & Tobias J. Moskowitz, 1999. "Home Bias at Home: Local Equity Preference in Domestic Portfolios," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 2045-2073, December.
    59. Joshua D. Coval & Tobias J. Moskowitz, 2001. "The Geography of Investment: Informed Trading and Asset Prices," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(4), pages 811-841, August.
    60. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    61. Mark Grinblatt & Matti Keloharju, 2001. "How Distance, Language, and Culture Influence Stockholdings and Trades," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(3), pages 1053-1073, June.
    62. Massa, Massimo & Schumacher, David & wang, yan, 2016. "Who is afraid of BlackRock?," CEPR Discussion Papers 11471, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    63. Itzhak Ben-David & Francesco Franzoni & Rabih Moussawi, 2012. "Hedge Fund Stock Trading in the Financial Crisis of 2007--2009," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(1), pages 1-54.
    64. Alberto Abadie & Guido W. Imbens, 2006. "Large Sample Properties of Matching Estimators for Average Treatment Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(1), pages 235-267, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Stefano Ramelli & Alexander F. Wagner & Richard J. Zeckhauser & Alexandre Ziegler, 2018. "Investor Rewards to Climate Responsibility: Evidence from the 2016 Climate Policy Shock," NBER Working Papers 25310, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Kumar, Nitish & Mullally, Kevin & Ray, Sugata & Tang, Yuehua, 2020. "Prime (information) brokerage," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 137(2), pages 371-391.
    3. Matthew Backus & Christopher Conlon & Michael Sinkinson, 2021. "Common Ownership in America: 1980–2017," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 13(3), pages 273-308, August.
    4. Stefano Ramelli & Alexander F Wagner & Richard J Zeckhauser & Alexandre Ziegler, 2021. "Investor Rewards to Climate Responsibility: Stock-Price Responses to the Opposite Shocks of the 2016 and 2020 U.S. Elections [Asset pricing with liquidity risk]," The Review of Corporate Finance Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 748-787.
    5. Lysle Boller & Fiona Scott Morton, 2020. "Testing the Theory of Common Stock Ownership," NBER Working Papers 27515, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Matthew Backus & Christopher Conlon & Michael Sinkinson, 2021. "Common Ownership in America: 1980–2017," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 13(3), pages 273-308, August.
    7. Mark Egan & Alexander MacKay & Hanbin Yang, 2022. "Recovering Investor Expectations from Demand for Index Funds [American Association of Individual Investors (AAII) Investor Sentiment Survey]," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 89(5), pages 2559-2599.
    8. Özgür Özel & Mustafa Utku Özmen & Erdal Yılmaz, 2021. "Foreign investor dominance and low domestic investor absorption capacity: Implications on capital outflows," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(3), pages 4361-4371, July.
    9. Jung Koo Kang & Lorien Stice‐Lawrence & Yu Ting Forester Wong, 2021. "The Firm Next Door: Using Satellite Images to Study Local Information Advantage," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(2), pages 713-750, May.
    10. Ralph S. J. Koijen & Robert J. Richmond & Motohiro Yogo, 2020. "Which Investors Matter for Equity Valuations and Expected Returns?," NBER Working Papers 27402, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Crane, Alan D. & Koch, Andrew & Michenaud, Sébastien, 2019. "Institutional investor cliques and governance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 133(1), pages 175-197.
    12. Engljähringer, Hannah Katharina & Stracca, Livio, 2020. "Firm-specific shocks and contagion: are banks special?," Working Paper Series 2481, European Central Bank.
    13. Mathias S. Kruttli & Phillip J. Monin & Sumudu W. Watugala, 2017. "Investor Concentration, Flows, and Cash Holdings : Evidence from Hedge Funds," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-121, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    14. Itzhak Ben-David & Francesco A. Franzoni & Rabih Moussawi, 2016. "Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs)," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 16-64, Swiss Finance Institute.
    15. Lepori, Gabriele M., 2023. "Acute illness symptoms among investment professionals and stock market dynamics: Evidence from New York City," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 165-181.
    16. Steven Chong Xiao, 2020. "Do Noisy Stock Prices Impede Real Efficiency?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 66(12), pages 5990-6014, December.
    17. Sergey Chernenko & Adi Sunderam, 2018. "Do Fire Sales Create Externalities?," NBER Working Papers 25104, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Abramova, Inna & Core, John & Sutherland, Andrew, 2019. "Institutional Investor Attention and Firm Disclosure," MPRA Paper 93665, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Alfaro, Laura & Asis, Gonzalo & Chari, Anusha & Panizza, Ugo, 2019. "Corporate debt, firm size and financial fragility in emerging markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 1-19.
    20. Gilje, Erik P. & Gormley, Todd A. & Levit, Doron, 2020. "Who's paying attention? Measuring common ownership and its impact on managerial incentives," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 137(1), pages 152-178.
    21. Martineau, Charles, 2021. "Rest in Peace Post-Earnings Announcement Drift," SocArXiv z7k3p, Center for Open Science.
    22. Jonathan Lewellen & Katharina Lewellen, 2022. "Institutional Investors and Corporate Governance: The Incentive to Be Engaged," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 77(1), pages 213-264, February.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Itzhak Ben-David & Francesco Franzoni & Rabih Moussawi & John Sedunov, 2021. "The Granular Nature of Large Institutional Investors," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 67(11), pages 6629-6659, November.
    2. Aragon, George O. & Kim, Min S., 2023. "Fire sale risk and expected stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 149(3), pages 578-609.
    3. Cristina Cella & Andrew Ellul & Mariassunta Giannetti, 2013. "Investors' Horizons and the Amplification of Market Shocks," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(7), pages 1607-1648.
    4. Kim, Donghyun & Li, Chengcheng & Wang, Xiaoqiong, 2023. "Liquidity Dry-ups in equity markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    5. Richard Sias & H. J. Turtle & Blerina Zykaj, 2016. "Hedge Fund Crowds and Mispricing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 62(3), pages 764-784, March.
    6. Andrew Koch, 2017. "Herd Behavior and Mutual Fund Performance," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(11), pages 3849-3873, November.
    7. Xi Dong & Shu Feng & Ronnie Sadka, 2019. "Liquidity Risk and Mutual Fund Performance," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 65(3), pages 1020-1041, March.
    8. Antoniou, Constantinos & Mitali, Shema F., 2023. "Do stock-level experienced returns influence security selection?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 157(C).
    9. Ignashkina, Anna & Rinne, Kalle & Suominen, Matti, 2022. "Short-term reversals, returns to liquidity provision and the costs of immediacy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    10. Xiaoran Huang & Zheng Qiao & Lei Zhang, 2021. "The real effects of institutional spatial concentration," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 50(4), pages 1113-1167, December.
    11. Blocher, Jesse, 2016. "Network externalities in mutual funds," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 1-26.
    12. Pantzalis, Christos & Park, Jung Chul, 2014. "Exuberance out of left field: Do sports results cause investors to take their eyes off the ball?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 107(PB), pages 760-780.
    13. Eisele, Alexander & Nefedova, Tamara & Parise, Gianpaolo & Peijnenburg, Kim, 2020. "Trading out of sight: An analysis of cross-trading in mutual fund families," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(2), pages 359-378.
    14. Luo, Mancy, 2017. "Essays in financial intermediation and political economy," Other publications TiSEM 146f40d3-6c89-4c6d-8fea-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    15. Massa, Massimo & Ferreira, Miguel & Matos, Pedro Pinto, 2016. "Investor-Stock Decoupling in Mutual Funds," CEPR Discussion Papers 11476, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Massa, Massimo & Cheng, Si & Zhang, Hong, 2017. "Inefficient Globalization of Finance: Evidence from Marketing-Oriented Overseas Expansions of Low-Skilled Mutual Fund Families," CEPR Discussion Papers 11990, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Cuthbertson, Keith & Nitzsche, Dirk & O'Sullivan, Niall, 2016. "A review of behavioural and management effects in mutual fund performance," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 162-176.
    18. Miguel A. Ferreira & Massimo Massa & Pedro Matos, 2018. "Investor–Stock Decoupling in Mutual Funds," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 64(5), pages 2144-2163, May.
    19. Beggs, William & DeVault, Luke, 2022. "Mutual fund (sub)advisor connections and crowds," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 231-252.
    20. Aabo, Tom & Lee, Suin & Pantzalis, Christos & Park, Jung Chul, 2020. "Know thy neighbor: Political uncertainty and the informational advantage of local institutional investors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 113(C).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22247. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: the person in charge (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.