IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/19095.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Flights to Safety

Author

Listed:
  • Lieven Baele
  • Geert Bekaert
  • Koen Inghelbrecht
  • Min Wei

Abstract

Despite a large and growing theoretical literature on flights to safety, there does not appear to exist an empirical characterization of flight-to-safety (FTS) episodes. Using only data on bond and stock returns, we identify and characterize flight to safety episodes for 23 countries. On average, FTS days comprise less than 5% of the sample, and bond returns exceed equity returns by 2 to 3%. The majority of FTS events are country-specific not global. FTS episodes coincide with increases in the VIX, decreases in consumer sentiment indicators and appreciations of the Yen, Swiss franc, and US dollar. The financial, basic materials and industrial industries under-perform in FTS episodes, but the telecom industry outperforms. Money market instruments, corporate bonds, and commodity prices (with the exception of metals, including gold) face abnormal negative returns in FTS episodes. Liquidity deteriorates on FTS days both in the bond and equity markets. Both economic growth and inflation decline right after and up to a year following a FTS spell.

Suggested Citation

  • Lieven Baele & Geert Bekaert & Koen Inghelbrecht & Min Wei, 2013. "Flights to Safety," NBER Working Papers 19095, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19095
    Note: AP
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w19095.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ricardo J. Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2008. "Collective Risk Management in a Flight to Quality Episode," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2195-2230, October.
    2. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2009. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(6), pages 2201-2238, June.
    3. Ang, Andrew & Kristensen, Dennis, 2012. "Testing conditional factor models," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 132-156.
    4. Andrew Ang & Geert Bekaert, 2002. "International Asset Allocation With Regime Shifts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1137-1187.
    5. Jean-Sébastien Fontaine & René Garcia, 2012. "Bond Liquidity Premia," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(4), pages 1207-1254.
    6. Andrew J. Patton, 2009. "Are "Market Neutral" Hedge Funds Really Market Neutral?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(7), pages 2295-2330, July.
    7. Goyenko, Ruslan & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar & Ukhov, Andrey, 2011. "The Term Structure of Bond Market Liquidity and Its Implications for Expected Bond Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(01), pages 111-139, March.
    8. Graveline, Jeremy J. & McBrady, Matthew R., 2011. "Who makes on-the-run Treasuries special?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 620-632, October.
    9. Perez-Quiros, Gabriel & Timmermann, Allan, 2001. "Business cycle asymmetries in stock returns: Evidence from higher order moments and conditional densities," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1-2), pages 259-306, July.
    10. Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2006. "Investor Sentiment and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(4), pages 1645-1680, August.
    11. Scott Mayfield, E., 2004. "Estimating the market risk premium," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(3), pages 465-496, September.
    12. Jordan, Bradford D & Jordan, Susan D, 1997. " Special Repo Rates: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 2051-2072, December.
    13. Teugels, Jozef L, 1990. "Some representations of the multivariate Bernoulli and binomial distributions," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 256-268, February.
    14. Alessandro Beber & Michael W. Brandt & Kenneth A. Kavajecz, 2009. "Flight-to-Quality or Flight-to-Liquidity? Evidence from the Euro-Area Bond Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(3), pages 925-957, March.
    15. Pasquariello, Paolo & Vega, Clara, 2009. "The on-the-run liquidity phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 1-24, April.
    16. Lieven Baele, 2010. "The Determinants of Stock and Bond Return Comovements," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(6), pages 2374-2428, June.
    17. Connolly, Robert & Stivers, Chris & Sun, Licheng, 2005. "Stock Market Uncertainty and the Stock-Bond Return Relation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(01), pages 161-194, March.
    18. Kremer, Manfred & Lo Duca, Marco & Holló, Dániel, 2012. "CISS - a composite indicator of systemic stress in the financial system," Working Paper Series 1426, European Central Bank.
    19. Bekaert, Geert & Engstrom, Eric & Xing, Yuhang, 2009. "Risk, uncertainty, and asset prices," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 59-82, January.
    20. Pastor, Lubos & Stambaugh, Robert F., 2003. "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(3), pages 642-685, June.
    21. Randi Næs & Johannes A. Skjeltorp & Bernt Arne Ødegard, 2008. "Liquidity and the business cycle," Working Paper 2008/11, Norges Bank.
    22. Baur, Dirk G. & Lucey, Brian M., 2009. "Flights and contagion--An empirical analysis of stock-bond correlations," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 339-352, December.
    23. William Fung & David A. Hsieh & Narayan Y. Naik & Tarun Ramadorai, 2008. "Hedge Funds: Performance, Risk, and Capital Formation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1777-1803, August.
    24. repec:ecb:ecbwps:20111426 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Grace Xing Hu & Jun Pan & Jiang Wang, 2013. "Noise as Information for Illiquidity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(6), pages 2341-2382, December.
    26. Geert Bekaert & Eric Engstrom, 2009. "Asset Return Dynamics under Bad Environment Good Environment Fundamentals," NBER Working Papers 15222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    27. Barsky, Robert B, 1989. "Why Don't the Prices of Stocks and Bonds Move Together?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1132-1145, December.
    28. Linda Allen & Turan G. Bali & Yi Tang, 2012. "Does Systemic Risk in the Financial Sector Predict Future Economic Downturns?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(10), pages 3000-3036.
    29. Francis A. Longstaff, 2004. "The Flight-to-Liquidity Premium in U.S. Treasury Bond Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(3), pages 511-526, July.
    30. Naresh Bansal & Robert A. Connolly & Chris Stivers, 2010. "Regime‐switching in stock index and Treasury futures returns and measures of stock market stress," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(8), pages 753-779, August.
    31. Nicole M. Boyson & Christof W. Stahel & René M. Stulz, 2010. "Hedge Fund Contagion and Liquidity Shocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(5), pages 1789-1816, October.
    32. Amihud, Yakov, 2002. "Illiquidity and stock returns: cross-section and time-series effects," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 31-56, January.
    33. Vayanos, Dimitri, 2004. "Flight to quality, flight to liquidity, and the pricing of risk," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 456, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    34. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    35. Viral V. Acharya, 2011. "Measuring Systemic Risk," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Macroprudential Regulatory Policies The New Road to Financial Stability?, chapter 10, pages 133-143 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    36. Robert Engle & Michael J. Fleming & Eric Ghysels & Giang Nguyen, 2012. "Liquidity, volatility, and flights to safety in the U.S. treasury market: evidence from a new class of dynamic order book models," Staff Reports 590, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    37. Kim, Chang-Jin, 1994. "Dynamic linear models with Markov-switching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 1-22.
    38. Sheridan Titman & Cristian Tiu, 2011. "Do the Best Hedge Funds Hedge?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(1), pages 123-168.
    39. Robert B. Davies, 2002. "Hypothesis testing when a nuisance parameter is present only under the alternative: Linear model case," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 89(2), pages 484-489, June.
    40. Krishnamurthy, Arvind, 2002. "The bond/old-bond spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 463-506.
    41. Randi Næs & Johannes A. Skjeltorp & Bernt Arne Ødegaard, 2011. "Stock Market Liquidity and the Business Cycle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(1), pages 139-176, February.
    42. Goyenko, Ruslan Y. & Ukhov, Andrey D., 2009. "Stock and Bond Market Liquidity: A Long-Run Empirical Analysis," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(01), pages 189-212, February.
    43. Goyenko, Ruslan Y. & Holden, Craig W. & Trzcinka, Charles A., 2009. "Do liquidity measures measure liquidity?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 153-181, May.
    44. Holden, Craig W., 2009. "New low-frequency spread measures," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 778-813, November.
    45. Tarun Chordia, 2005. "An Empirical Analysis of Stock and Bond Market Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(1), pages 85-129.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Beber, Alessandro & Brandt, Michael & Cen, Jason, 2014. "Switching Risk Off: FX Correlations and Risk Premia," CEPR Discussion Papers 10214, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Bethke, Sebastian & Kempf, Alexander & Trapp, Monika, 2014. "Investor sentiment, flight-to-quality, and corporate bond comovement," CFR Working Papers 13-06 [rev.], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    3. Jamal Bouoiyour & Refk Selmi, 2017. "Ether: Bitcoin's competitor or ally?," Working Papers hal-01567277, HAL.
    4. Sarwar, Ghulam, 2017. "Examining the flight-to-safety with the implied volatilities," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 118-124.
    5. repec:eee:econom:v:202:y:2018:i:1:p:18-44 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Ghysels, Eric & Guérin, Pierre & Marcellino, Massimiliano, 2014. "Regime switches in the risk–return trade-off," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 118-138.
    7. Bekaert, Geert & Hoyem, Kenton & Hu, Wei-Yin & Ravina, Enrichetta, 2017. "Who is internationally diversified? Evidence from the 401(k) plans of 296 firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 86-112.
    8. H. Dewachter & G. de Walque & M. Emiris & P. Ilbas & J. Mitchell & R. Wouters, 2012. "Endogenous financial risk : The seventh international conference of the NBB," Economic Review, National Bank of Belgium, issue iii, pages 135-146, December.
    9. Pyun, Ju Hyun & An, Jiyoun, 2016. "Capital and credit market integration and real economic contagion during the global financial crisis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 172-193.
    10. Bethke, Sebastian & Gehde-Trapp, Monika & Kempf, Alexander, 2014. "Investor sentiment, flight-to-quality, and corporate bond comovement," CFR Working Papers 13-06 [rev.2], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    11. repec:eee:jrpoli:v:52:y:2017:i:c:p:308-319 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Jamal Bouoiyour & Refk Selmi, 2017. "The Bitcoin price formation: Beyond the fundamental sources," Papers 1707.01284, arXiv.org.
    13. Pieterse-Bloem, Mary & Qian, Zhaowen & Verschoor, Willem & Zwinkels, Remco, 2016. "Time-varying importance of country and industry factors in European corporate bonds," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(PA), pages 429-448.
    14. Jordan, Steven J. & Vivian, Andrew & Wohar, Mark E., 2016. "Can commodity returns forecast Canadian sector stock returns?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 172-188.
    15. Hussain Shahzad, Syed Jawad & Raza, Naveed & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ali, Azwadi, 2017. "Dependence of stock markets with gold and bonds under bullish and bearish market states," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 308-319.
    16. Bekaert, Geert & Hoerova, Marie, 2016. "What do asset prices have to say about risk appetite and uncertainty?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 103-118.
    17. Jian Luo & Xiaoxia Ye & May Hu, 2016. "Counter-Credit-Risk Yield Spreads: A Puzzle in China's Corporate Bond Market," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 16(2), pages 203-241, June.
    18. Adrian, Tobias & Crump, Richard K. & Vogt, Erik, 2015. "Nonlinearity and flight to safety in the risk-return trade-off for stocks and bonds," Staff Reports 723, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Nov 2017.
    19. Bijsterbosch, Martin & Guérin, Pierre, 2013. "Characterizing very high uncertainty episodes," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(2), pages 239-243.
    20. Stracca, Livio, 2013. "The global effects of the euro debt crisis," Working Paper Series 1573, European Central Bank.
    21. Juan Ángel García & Ricardo Gimeno, 2014. "Flight-to-liquidity flows in the euro area sovereign debt crisis," Working Papers 1429, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    22. Stracca, Livio & Habib, Maurizio Michael, 2013. "Foreign investors and risk shocks: seeking a safe haven or running for the exit?," Working Paper Series 1609, European Central Bank.
    23. Tim A Kroencke & Maik Schmeling & Andreas Schrimpf, 2015. "Global Asset Allocation Shifts," BIS Working Papers 497, Bank for International Settlements.
    24. repec:eee:jimfin:v:75:y:2017:i:c:p:14-31 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Turtle, H.J. & Wang, Kainan, 2016. "The benefits of improved covariance estimation," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 233-246.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19095. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.