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Are "Market Neutral" Hedge Funds Really Market Neutral?

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  • Andrew J. Patton

Abstract

Using a variety of different definitions of "neutrality," this study presents significant evidence against the neutrality to market risk of hedge funds in a range of style categories. I generalize standard definitions of "market neutrality," and propose five different neutrality concepts. I suggest statistical tests for each neutrality concept, and apply these tests to a database of monthly returns on 1423 hedge funds from five style categories. For the "market neutral" style, approximately one-quarter of the funds exhibit significant exposure to market risk; this proportion is statistically significantly different from zero, but less than the proportion of significant exposures for other hedge fund styles. The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew J. Patton, 2009. "Are "Market Neutral" Hedge Funds Really Market Neutral?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(7), pages 2295-2330, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:22:y:2009:i:7:p:2295-2330
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    Cited by:

    1. Panopoulou, Ekaterini & Vrontos, Spyridon, 2015. "Hedge fund return predictability; To combine forecasts or combine information?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 103-122.
    2. Arjen Siegmann & Denitsa Stefanova, 2011. "Market Liquidity and Exposure of Hedge Funds," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-150/2/DSF27, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Polanski, Arnold & Stoja, Evarist, 2015. "Extreme risk interdependence," Bank of England working papers 563, Bank of England.
    4. Giannikis, Dimitrios & Vrontos, Ioannis D., 2011. "A Bayesian approach to detecting nonlinear risk exposures in hedge fund strategies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1399-1414, June.
    5. Weigert, Florian, 2013. "Crash Aversion and the Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns Worldwide," Working Papers on Finance 1325, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance, revised Nov 2015.
    6. Agarwal, Vikas & Fos, Vyacheslav & Jiang, Wei, 2010. "Inferring reporting biases in hedge fund databases from hedge fund equity holdings," CFR Working Papers 10-08, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    7. Jacobs, Heiko & Müller, Sebastian & Weber, Martin, 2014. "How should individual investors diversify? An empirical evaluation of alternative asset allocation policies," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 62-85.
    8. Lieven Baele & Geert Bekaert & Koen Inghelbrecht & Min Wei, 2012. "Flights to Safety," Working Paper Research 230, National Bank of Belgium.
    9. Funga, William & Hsiehb, David A., 2013. "Hedge Funds," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier.
    10. Arnold Polanski & Evarist Stoja, 2016. "Extreme risk interdependence," ESRB Working Paper Series 12, European Systemic Risk Board.
    11. Chabi-Yo, Fousseni & Ruenzi, Stefan & Weigert, Florian, 2013. "Crash Sensitivity and the Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Working Papers on Finance 1324, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance, revised Feb 2016.
    12. Bussière, Matthieu & Hoerova, Marie & Klaus, Benjamin, 2015. "Commonality in hedge fund returns: Driving factors and implications," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 266-280.
    13. Bollen, Nicolas P. B., 2013. "Zero-R 2Hedge Funds and Market Neutrality," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 48(02), pages 519-547, April.
    14. Antonio Diez De Los Rios & René Garcia, 2011. "Assessing and valuing the nonlinear structure of hedge fund returns," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 193-212, March.
    15. Auer, Benjamin R. & Schuhmacher, Frank, 2013. "Diamonds — A precious new asset?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 182-189.
    16. Namvar, Ethan & Phillips, Blake & Pukthuanthong, Kuntara & Raghavendra Rau, P., 2016. "Do hedge funds dynamically manage systematic risk?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 1-15.
    17. Bali, Turan G. & Brown, Stephen J. & Caglayan, Mustafa Onur, 2012. "Systematic risk and the cross section of hedge fund returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 114-131.
    18. Agarwal, Vikas & Green, Tracy Clifton & Ren, Honglin, 2017. "Alpha or beta in the eye of the beholder: What drives hedge fund flows?," CFR Working Papers 15-08, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    19. repec:eee:glofin:v:33:y:2017:i:c:p:69-87 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Polanski, Arnold & Stoja, Evarist & Zhang, Ren, 2013. "Multidimensional risk and risk dependence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3286-3294.
    21. Bali, Turan G. & Brown, Stephen J. & Caglayan, Mustafa O., 2014. "Macroeconomic risk and hedge fund returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 1-19.
    22. El Kalak, Izidin & Azevedo, Alcino & Hudson, Robert, 2016. "Reviewing the hedge funds literature II: Hedge funds' returns and risk management characteristics," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 55-66.
    23. Patton, Andrew J., 2012. "A review of copula models for economic time series," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 4-18.
    24. Papageorgiou, Nicolas & Reeves, Jonathan J. & Xie, Xuan, 2016. "Betas and the myth of market neutrality," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 548-558.
    25. Patton, Andrew, 2013. "Copula Methods for Forecasting Multivariate Time Series," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors

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