IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Composition of International Capital Flows: A Survey

  • Koralai Kirabaeva
  • Assaf Razin

In an integrated world capital market with perfect information, all forms of capital flows are indistinguishable. Information frictions and incomplete risk sharing are important elements that needed to differentiate between equity and debt flows, and between different types of equities. This survey put together models of debt, FDI, Fpi flows to help explain the composition of capital flows. With information asymmetry between foreign and domestic investors, a country which finances its domestic investment through foreign debt or foreign equity portfolio issue, will inadequately augment its capital stock. Foreign direct investment flows, however, have the potential of generating an efficient level of domestic investment. In the presence of asymmetric information between sellers and buyers in the capital market, foreign direct investment is associated with higher liquidation costs due to the adverse selection. Thus, the exposure to liquidity shocks determines the volume of foreign direct investment flows relative to portfolio investment flows. In particular, the information-liquidity trade-off helps explain the composition of equity flows between developed and emerging countries, as well as the patterns of FDI flows during financial crises. The asymmetric information between domestic investors (as borrowers) and foreign investors (as lenders) with respect to investment allocation leads to moral hazard and thus generate an inadequate amount of borrowings. The moral hazard problem, coupled with limited enforcement, can explain why countries experience debt outflows in low income periods; in contrast to the predictions of the complete-market paradigm. Finally, we analyze a risk-diversification model, where bond holdings hedge real exchange rate risks, while equities hedge non-financial income fluctuations. An equity home bias emerges as a calibratable equilibrium outcome.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 15599.

in new window

Date of creation: Dec 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as “Composition of Capital Flows” Encyclopedia of Financial Globalization, Elsevier, October, 2012.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15599
Note: IFM
Contact details of provider: Postal:
National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.

Phone: 617-868-3900
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Hui Tong & Shang-Jin Wei, 2010. "The Composition Matters: Capital Inflows and Liquidity Crunch during a Global Economic Crisis," Working Papers 172010, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  2. Ricardo Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2000. "International and Domestic Collateral Constraints in a Model of Emerging Market Crises," NBER Working Papers 7971, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Jonathan Heathcote & Fabrizio Perri, 2007. "The international diversification puzzle is not as bad as you think," Staff Report 398, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  4. Mark, Aguiar & Gopinath, Gita, 2005. "Fire-Sale Foreign Direct Investment and Liquidity Crises," Scholarly Articles 3634155, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  5. Itay Goldstein & Assaf Razin, 2005. "An Information-Based Trade Off between Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment," NBER Working Papers 11757, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Michael W. Klein & Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 2002. "Troubled Banks, Impaired Foreign Direct Investment: The Role of Relative Access to Credit," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(3), pages 664-682, June.
  7. Allen, Franklin & Gale, Douglas, 1994. "Limited Market Participation and Volatility of Asset Prices," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 933-55, September.
  8. Rossi, Stefano & Volpin, Paolo F., 2004. "Cross-country determinants of mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 277-304, November.
  9. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2000. "Banks, Short Term Debt and Financial Crises: Theory, Policy Implications and Applications," NBER Working Papers 7764, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Nicolas Coeurdacier & Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, 2011. "When Bonds Matter: Home Bias in Goods and Assets," NBER Working Papers 17560, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Baxter, Marianne & Jermann, Urban J, 1997. "The International Diversification Puzzle Is Worse Than You Think," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 170-80, March.
  12. Kenneth A. Froot & Jeremy C. Stein, 1991. "Exchange Rates and Foreign Direct Investment: An Imperfect Capital Markets Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(4), pages 1191-1217.
  13. Rui Albuquerque, 2004. "The Composition of International Capital Flows: Risk Sharing Through Foreign Direct Investment," International Finance 0405004, EconWPA.
  14. Kesternich, Iris & Schnitzer, Monika, 2007. "Who is Afraid of Political Risk? Multinational Firms and their Choice of Capital Structure," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 213, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  15. Ayhan Kose & Eswar S Prasad & Kenneth Rogoff & Shang-Jin Wei, 2006. "Financial Globalization; A Reappraisal," IMF Working Papers 06/189, International Monetary Fund.
  16. Philip Lane & Jay C. Shambaugh, 2007. "Financial Exchange Rates and International Currency Exposures," NBER Working Papers 13433, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Coeurdacier, Nicolas, 2006. "Do Trade Costs in Goods Market Lead to Home Bias in Equities?," ESSEC Working Papers DR 06011, ESSEC Research Center, ESSEC Business School.
  18. Maurice Obstfeld and Kenneth Rogoff., 2000. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C00-112, University of California at Berkeley.
  19. Roger H. Gordon & A. Lans Bovenberg, 1994. "Why is Capital so Immobile Internationally?: Possible Explanations and Implications for Capital Income Taxation," NBER Working Papers 4796, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Viktor Tsyrennikov, 2007. "Capital Flows and Moral Hazard," 2007 Meeting Papers 455, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  21. Ronald I. McKinnon & Huw Pill, 1996. "Credible Liberalizations and International Capital Flows: The "Overborrowing Syndrome"," NBER Chapters, in: Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5, pages 7-50 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Albuquerque, Rui & Loayza, Norman & Serven, Luis, 2003. "World market integration through the lens of foreign direct investors," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3060, The World Bank.
  23. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/c8dmi8nm4pdjkuc9g708n2m4m is not listed on IDEAS
  24. Michael W. Klein & Eric Rosengren, 1992. "The Real Exchange Rate and Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: Relative Wealth vs. Relative Wage Effects," NBER Working Papers 4192, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Acharya, Viral V & Shin, Hyun Song & Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2007. "Fire-sale FDI," CEPR Discussion Papers 6319, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  26. Philip R. Lane and Jay C. Shambaugh, 2008. "The Long or Short of it: Determinants of Foreign Currency Exposure in External Balance Sheets," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp253, IIIS.
  27. Loungani, Prakash & Mody, Ashoka & Razin, Assaf, 2002. "The Global Disconnect: The Role of Transactional Distance and Scale Economies in Gravity Equations," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(5), pages 526-43, December.
  28. Bovenberg, A.L. & Gordon, R.H., 1996. "Why is capital so immobile internationally? Possible explanation and implications for capital income taxation," Other publications TiSEM 6a131c21-fd9a-4d83-8d9a-7, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  29. Atkeson, Andrew, 1991. "International Lending with Moral Hazard and Risk of Repudiation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(4), pages 1069-89, July.
  30. Wei, Shang-Jin, 2006. "Connecting two views on financial globalization: Can we make further progress?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 459-481, December.
  31. Akito Matsumoto & Charles Engel, 2009. "International Risk Sharing; Through Equity Diversification or Exchange Rate Hedging?," IMF Working Papers 09/138, International Monetary Fund.
  32. Dani Rodrik & Andres Velasco, 1999. "Short-Term Capital Flows," NBER Working Papers 7364, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  33. Itay Goldstein & Ady Pauzner, 2005. "Demand-Deposit Contracts and the Probability of Bank Runs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1293-1327, 06.
  34. Classens, S. & Dooley, M.P. & Warner, A., 1995. "Portfolio Capital Flows: Hot or Cold," Papers 501, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
  35. Sebastian Edwards, 2000. "Introduction to "Capital Flows and the Emerging Economies: Theory, Evidence, and Controversies"," NBER Chapters, in: Capital Flows and the Emerging Economies: Theory, Evidence, and Controversies, pages 1-12 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  36. Alan G. Ahearne & William L. Griever & Francis E. Warnock, 2000. "Information costs and home bias: an analysis of U.S. holdings of foreign equities," International Finance Discussion Papers 691, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  37. Assaf Razin & Efraim Sadka, 2002. "Gains from FDI Inflows with Incomplete Information," NBER Working Papers 9008, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  38. Malcolm Baker & C. Fritz Foley & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2009. "Multinationals as Arbitrageurs: The Effect of Stock Market Valuations on Foreign Direct Investment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 337-369, January.
  39. Roberto Chang & Andres Velasco, 2001. "A Model of Financial Crises in Emerging Markets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(2), pages 489-517.
  40. Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000. "Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
  41. Jason Furman & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1998. "Economic Crises: Evidence and Insights from East Asia," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(2), pages 1-136.
  42. Eric van Wincoop & Francis E. Warnock, 2006. "Is Home Bias in Assets Related to Home Bias in Goods?," NBER Working Papers 12728, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  43. Tesar, Linda L. & Werner, Ingrid M., 1995. "Home bias and high turnover," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 467-492, August.
  44. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/c8dmi8nm4pdjkuc9g821o6lsg is not listed on IDEAS
  45. Itay Goldstein & Assaf Razin & Hui Tong, 2008. "Liquidity, Institutional Quality and the Composition of International Equity Outflows," NBER Working Papers 13723, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  46. Portes, Richard & Rey, Helene & Oh, Yonghyup, 2001. "Information and capital flows: The determinants of transactions in financial assets," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 783-796, May.
  47. Mark Aguiar & Gita Gopinath, 2005. "Fire-Sale Foreign Direct Investment and Liquidity Crises," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(3), pages 439-452, August.
  48. repec:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/c8dmi8nm4pdjkuc9g708n2m4m is not listed on IDEAS
  49. Jonathan Eaton & Mark Gersovitz, 1981. "Debt with Potential Repudiation: Theoretical and Empirical Analysis," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 48(2), pages 289-309.
  50. Elhanan Helpman & Assaf Razin, 1978. "Uncertainty and International Trade in the Presence of Stock Markets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 45(2), pages 239-250.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15599. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.