IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Bond Markets as Conduits for Capital Flows: How Does Asia Compare?

  • Barry Eichengreen
  • Pipat Luengnaruemitchai

We use data on the extent to which residents of one country hold the bonds of issuers resident in another as a measure of financial integration or interrelatedness, asking how Asia compares with Europe and Latin America and with the base case in which the purchaser and issuer of the bonds reside in different regions. Not surprisingly, we find that Europe is head and shoulders above other regions in terms of financial integration. More interesting is that Asia already seems to have made some progress on this front compared to Latin America and other parts of the world. The contrast with Latin America is largely explained by stronger creditor and investor rights, more expeditious and less costly contract enforcement, and greater transparency that lead to larger and better developed financial systems in Asia, something that is conducive to foreign participation in local markets and to intra-regional cross holdings of Asian bonds generally. Further results based on a limited sample suggest that one factor holding back investment in foreign bonds in East Asia may be limited geographical diversification by mutual funds, in turn reflecting a dearth of appropriate assets. Asian Bond Fund 2, by creating a passively managed portfolio of local currency bonds potentially attractive to mutual fund managers and investors, may help to relax this constraint.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12408.

in new window

Date of creation: Aug 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Bond Markets as Conduits for Capital Flows: How Does Asia Compare? , Barry Eichengreen, Pipat Luengnaruemitchai. in International Financial Issues in the Pacific Rim: Global Imbalances, Financial Liberalization, and Exchange Rate Policy (NBER-EASE Volume 17) , Ito and Rose. 2008
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12408
Note: IFM
Contact details of provider: Postal:
National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.

Phone: 617-868-3900
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Robert McCauley & Guorong Jiang, 2004. "Diversifying with Asian local currency bonds," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
  2. Luigi Zingales & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2003. "Banks and Markets: The Changing Character of European Finance," NBER Working Papers 9595, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Buch, Claudia M., 2000. "Information or Regulation: What Is Driving the International Activities of Commercial Banks?," Kiel Working Papers 1011, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  4. Ugo Panizza & Eduardo Borensztein & Barry Eichengreen, 2006. "Debt Instruments and Policies in the New Millennium: New Markets and New Opportunities," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6708, Inter-American Development Bank.
  5. Izquierdo, Alejandro & Morisset, Jacques & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2003. "Information diffusion in international markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3032, The World Bank.
  6. repec:rus:hseeco:123708 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. Augusto de la Torre & Sergio Schmukler, 2005. "Whither Latin American Capital Markets?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 10336, The World Bank.
  8. Barry Eichengreen & Raul Razo-Garcia, 2006. "The international monetary system in the last and next 20 years," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 21(47), pages 393-442, 07.
  9. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1992. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America," MPRA Paper 13843, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Menzie D. Chinn & Hiro Ito, 2005. "What Matters for Financial Development? Capital Controls, Institutions, and Interactions," NBER Working Papers 11370, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Barry Eichengreen & Douglas A. Irwin, 1998. "The Role of History in Bilateral Trade Flows," NBER Chapters, in: The Regionalization of the World Economy, pages 33-62 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. R Portes & H Rey, 2000. "The Determinants Of Cross-Border Equity Flows," CEP Discussion Papers dp0446, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  13. Papaioannou, Elias, 2005. "What drives international bank flows? Politics, institutions and other determinants," Working Paper Series 0437, European Central Bank.
  14. Morris Goldstein & Philip Turner, 2004. "Controlling Currency Mismatches in Emerging Markets," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 373, January.
  15. Alejandro Micco & Ugo Panizza & Mónica Yañez, 2004. "Bank Ownership and Performance," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6685, Inter-American Development Bank.
  16. Barry Eichengreen & Pipat Luengnaruemitchai, 2006. "Why doesn’t Asia have bigger bond markets?," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Asian bond markets: issues and prospects, volume 30, pages 40-77 Bank for International Settlements.
  17. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-deSilanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1999. "Investor Protection: Origins, Consequences, and Reform," NBER Working Papers 7428, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Lane, Philip R. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 2004. "International Investment Patterns," CEPR Discussion Papers 4499, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Buch, Claudia M, 2002. "Are Banks Different? Evidence from International Data," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 97-114, Spring.
  20. Swati Ghosh & Holger Wolf, 2000. "Is There a Curse of Location? Spatial Determinants of Capital Flows to Emerging Markets," NBER Chapters, in: Capital Flows and the Emerging Economies: Theory, Evidence, and Controversies, pages 137-156 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Nathan Sussman & Barry J. Eichengreen, 2000. "The International Monetary System in the (Very) Long Run," IMF Working Papers 00/43, International Monetary Fund.
  22. Garry J. Schinasi & T. Todd Smith, 1998. "Fixed-Income Markets in the United States, Europe, and Japan-Some Lessons for Emerging Markets," IMF Working Papers 98/173, International Monetary Fund.
  23. Shujing Li & Hamid Faruqee & Isabel K. Yan, 2004. "The Determinants of International Portfolio Holdings and Home Bias," IMF Working Papers 04/34, International Monetary Fund.
  24. Philippe Martin and Hélène Rey., 2000. "Financial Super-Markets: Size Matters for Asset Trade," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C00-110, University of California at Berkeley.
  25. Serge Jeanneau & Marian Micu, 2002. "Determinants of international bank lending to emerging market countries," BIS Working Papers 112, Bank for International Settlements.
  26. Andrew K. Rose & Mark M. Spiegel, 2004. "A Gravity Model of Sovereign Lending: Trade, Default, and Credit," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 51(s1), pages 50-63, June.
  27. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 1999. "Investor Protection: Origins, Consequences, Reform," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1883, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  28. Eichengreen, Barry & Park, Yung Chul, 2003. "Why Has There Been Less Financial Integration In Asia Than In Europe?," Institute of European Studies, Working Paper Series qt6823v94w, Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley.
  29. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2004. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 1-48.
  30. Shleifer, Andrei & Djankov, Simeon & McLiesh, Caralee, 2007. "Private credit in 129 countries?," Scholarly Articles 27867134, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  31. Nicolas Coeurdacier & Stéphane Guibaud, 2005. "International equity holdings and stock returns correlations: Does diversification matter at all for portfolio choice?," PSE Working Papers halshs-00590777, HAL.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12408. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.