IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/12001.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Regulating Advertisements: The Case of Smoking Cessation Products

Author

Listed:
  • Rosemary J. Avery
  • Donald S. Kenkel
  • Dean R. Lillard
  • Alan D. Mathios

Abstract

In this paper we investigate how direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of pharmaceutical products in affected by regulations of the Food and Drug Administration and by market conditions. We focus on a relatively under-studied segment of the pharmaceutical market -- the market for smoking cessation products. Because of their proven effectiveness, these products could be the key to meeting public health goals to reduce smoking. However, in many ways, smoking cessation products have been more heavily regulated than cigarettes. Our empirical analysis uses data on advertising expenditures and data from an archive of print advertisements. The archive includes all smoking cessation product advertisements that appeared in over 13,000 issues of 28 magazines between January 1985 and May 2002. Our study period begins shortly atfer the first nicotine replacement product was introduced, and covers the evolution of the market as new products are introduced while some of the older products move from prescription to over-the-counter (OTC) status. OTC status eases the disclosure requirements imposed on advertisements of prescription pharmaceuticals, substantially reducing the costs of a print advertisement. Our results suggest that OTC status is associated with an increase in advertising expenditures and the number and pages of magazine advertisements. A current proposal to reduce disclosure requirements on all DTC advertisements of prescription drugs could have similar effects. Our results also suggest that advertising increase with the introduction of new products and with market competition.

Suggested Citation

  • Rosemary J. Avery & Donald S. Kenkel & Dean R. Lillard & Alan D. Mathios, 2006. "Regulating Advertisements: The Case of Smoking Cessation Products," NBER Working Papers 12001, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12001 Note: HE
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w12001.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Schneider, Lynne & Klein, Benjamin & Murphy, Kevin M, 1981. "Governmental Regulation of Cigarette Health Information," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 575-612, December.
    2. Jonathan Gruber, 2001. "Tobacco at the Crossroads: The Past and Future of Smoking Regulation in the United States," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 193-212, Spring.
    3. Toshiaki Iizuka & Ginger Zhe Jin, 2005. "Drug Advertising and Health Habit," NBER Working Papers 11770, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Bhattacharya, Jayanta & Vogt, William B, 2003. "A Simple Model of Pharmaceutical Price Dynamics," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(2), pages 599-626, October.
    5. Pauline M. Ippolito & Alan D. Mathios, 1990. "Information, Advertising and Health Choices: A Study of the Cereal Market," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(3), pages 459-480, Autumn.
    6. Keith, Alison, 1995. "Regulating Information about Aspirin and the Prevention of Heart Attack," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 96-99, May.
    7. Mathios, Alan D, 2000. "The Impact of Mandatory Disclosure Laws on Product Choices: An Analysis of the Salad Dressing Market," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(2), pages 651-677, October.
    8. Chaloupka, Frank J. & Warner, Kenneth E., 2000. "The economics of smoking," Handbook of Health Economics,in: A. J. Culyer & J. P. Newhouse (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 29, pages 1539-1627 Elsevier.
    9. Mullahy, John, 1997. "Heterogeneity, Excess Zeros, and the Structure of Count Data Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(3), pages 337-350, May-June.
    10. Sloan, Frank A. & Smith, V. Kerry & Taylor, Donald Jr., 2002. "Information, addiction, and 'bad choices': lessons from a century of cigarettes," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 147-155, October.
    11. Berndt, Ernst R, et al, 1995. "Information, Marketing, and Pricing in the U.S. Antiulcer Drug Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 100-105, May.
    12. Theodore E. Keeler & Teh-wei Hu & Alison Keith & Richard Manning & Martin D. Marciniak & Michael Ong & Hai-Yen Sung, 2002. "The benefits of switching smoking cessation drugs to over-the-counter status," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(5), pages 389-402.
    13. Scott Morton, Fiona M., 2000. "Barriers to entry, brand advertising, and generic entry in the US pharmaceutical industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 1085-1104, October.
    14. Chang-Yang Lee, 2002. "Advertising, Its Determinants, and Market Structure," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 21(1), pages 89-101, August.
    15. Rosenthal Meredith B. & Berndt Ernst R. & Donohue Julie M. & Epstein Arnold M. & Frank Richard G., 2003. "Demand Effects of Recent Changes in Prescription Drug Promotion," Forum for Health Economics & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-28, January.
    16. Bulow, Jeremy I. & Klemperer, Paul, 1999. "The Tobacco Deal," CEPR Discussion Papers 2125, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Ippolito, Pauline M & Mathios, Alan D, 1995. "Information and Advertising: The Case of Fat Consumption in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 91-95, May.
    18. repec:bin:bpeajo:v:29:y:1998:i:1998-3:p:323-394 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Andrew M. Jones, 2012. "health econometrics," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Palgrave Macmillan.
    20. repec:reg:rpubli:141 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Alvin Silk & Lisa Klein & Ernst Berndt, 2002. "Intermedia Substitutability and Market Demand by National Advertisers," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 20(4), pages 323-348, June.
    22. John E. Calfee & Clifford Winston & Randolph Stempski, 2002. "Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and the Demand for Cholesterol-Reducing Drugs," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(S2), pages 673-690.
    23. Schmalensee, Richard, 1983. "Advertising and Entry Deterrence: An Exploratory Model," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(4), pages 636-653, August.
    24. Davina C. Ling & Ernst R. Berndt & Margaret K. Kyle, 2002. "Deregulating Direct-to-Consumer Marketing of Prescription Drugs: Effects on Prescription and Over-the-Counter Product Sales," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(S2), pages 691-723.
    25. John A. Tauras & Frank J. Chaloupka, 2001. "The Demand for Nicotine Replacement Therapies," NBER Working Papers 8332, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    26. Lewit, Eugene M & Coate, Douglas & Grossman, Michael, 1981. "The Effects of Government Regulation on Teenage Smoking," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 545-569, December.
    27. Mark J. Roberts & Larry Samuelson, 1988. "An Empirical Analysis of Dynamic, Nonprice Competition in an Oligopolistic Industry," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(2), pages 200-220, Summer.
    28. Becker, Gary S & Murphy, Kevin M, 1988. "A Theory of Rational Addiction," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(4), pages 675-700, August.
    29. Patricia M. Danzon & Mark V. Pauly, 2002. "Health Insurance and the Growth in Pharmaceutical Expenditures," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(S2), pages 587-613.
    30. repec:aph:ajpbhl:1999:89:11:1701-1707_3 is not listed on IDEAS
    31. repec:aph:ajpbhl:2004:94:2:251-252_0 is not listed on IDEAS
    32. repec:aph:ajpbhl:10.2105/ajph.2004.040774_1 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Craig A. Gallet & John A. List, 2003. "Cigarette demand: a meta-analysis of elasticities," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(10), pages 821-835.
    34. Meredith B. Rosenthal & Ernst R. Berndt & Julie M. Donohue & Arnold M. Epstein & Richard G. Frank, 2003. "Demand Effects of Recent Changes in Prescription Drug Promotion," NBER Chapters,in: Frontiers in Health Policy Research, Volume 6, pages 1-26 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    35. repec:reg:rpubli:425 is not listed on IDEAS
    36. Saffer, Henry & Chaloupka, Frank, 2000. "The effect of tobacco advertising bans on tobacco consumption," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 1117-1137, November.
    37. repec:mes:challe:v:31:y:1988:i:4:p:56-58 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Toshiaki Iizuka & Ginger Zhe Jin, 2005. "Drug Advertising and Health Habit," NBER Working Papers 11770, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Donald S. Kenkel & Maximilian D. Schmeiser & Carly Urban, 2014. "Is Smoking Inferior?: Evidence from Variation in the Earned Income Tax Credit," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 49(4), pages 1094-1120.
    3. Andrew Stivers, 2009. "Regulating Market Language: Market Failure in Descriptive Signals," Journal of Consumer Policy, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 23-41, March.
    4. Rosemary Avery & Donald Kenkel & Dean R. Lillard & Alan Mathios, 2006. "Private Profits and Public Health: Does Advertising Smoking Cessation Products Encourage Smokers to Quit?," NBER Working Papers 11938, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Rosemary Avery & Donald Kenkel & Dean R. Lillard & Alan Mathios, 2007. "Private Profits and Public Health: Does Advertising of Smoking Cessation Products Encourage Smokers to Quit?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 115, pages 447-481.
    6. repec:eee:jhecon:v:55:y:2017:i:c:p:30-44 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I1 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health
    • L5 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.