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Size and causes of the underground economy in Spain: A correction of the record and new evidence from the MCDR approach

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  • Michael Pickhardt
  • Jordi Sardà

Abstract

We review existing estimates of the size of the Spanish underground economy, apply the Ahumada et al. (2007, RIW) correction procedure to some of them and calculate the size of the underground economy in Spain for the period 1960 through 2009 by using the modified-cash-deposits-ratio (MCDR) approach recently developed by Pickhardt and Sardà (2011, EJLE). We then extend the MCDR approach with respect to an analysis of the causes of the Spanish underground economy. Contrary to most other studies, we show that the latter is not predominantly caused by tax pressure, but by labor market aspects, macroeconomic influences and criminal activities. Based on these findings we derive some unprecedented policy recommendations.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Pickhardt & Jordi Sardà, "undated". "Size and causes of the underground economy in Spain: A correction of the record and new evidence from the MCDR approach," Working Papers 201280, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
  • Handle: RePEc:muc:wpaper:201280
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mai Hassan & Friedrich Schneider, 2016. "Modelling the Egyptian Shadow Economy: A Currency Demand and A MIMIC Model Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 5727, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Michael Pickhardt & Jordi Sardà, "undated". "Cash, Hoarding and the Underground Economy," Working Papers 201282, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
    3. Amendolagine, Vito & Capolupo, Rosa & Ferri, Giovanni, 2014. "Innovativeness, offshoring and black economy decisions. Evidence from Italian manufacturing firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1153-1166.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    underground economy; shadow economy; hidden economy; black economy; cash-deposit-ratio; currency demand approach; MIMIC approach;

    JEL classification:

    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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