IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/iburev/v23y2014i6p1153-1166.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Innovativeness, offshoring and black economy decisions. Evidence from Italian manufacturing firms

Author

Listed:
  • Amendolagine, Vito
  • Capolupo, Rosa
  • Ferri, Giovanni

Abstract

Following recent models in international trade this paper examines the characteristics that businesses should possess to pursue internationalization strategies. We do this in the peculiar context of Italy, the G-7 country with the largest share of the black economy in GDP. Specifically, we posit that Italian manufacturing firms may use three strategies to counter the competitive threats by emerging economies: (i) improve the innovative content of their products (ii) venturing into offshoring, or, alternatively, (iii) entering the black economy. We estimate the impact of these moves with firm-level data drawn from two waves of the Italian Manufacturing Survey (IMS) covering a six-year period (1998–2003). We find that offshoring firms are larger, more innovative, have higher capital/labour ratio and are located in provinces where the share of the black economy is lower. Firms belonging to provinces in which the share of the black economy is larger are less likely to choose the internationalization mode. The offshoring-black economy nexus bears relevant policy implications. In particular, vis-à-vis their offshoring companions, firms choosing to enter the black economy may be producing negative spillover effects by lowering productivity and the propensity to innovate.

Suggested Citation

  • Amendolagine, Vito & Capolupo, Rosa & Ferri, Giovanni, 2014. "Innovativeness, offshoring and black economy decisions. Evidence from Italian manufacturing firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1153-1166.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:23:y:2014:i:6:p:1153-1166
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.03.011
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969593114000493
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Roza, Marja & Van den Bosch, Frans A.J. & Volberda, Henk W., 2011. "Offshoring strategy: Motives, functions, locations, and governance modes of small, medium-sized and large firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 314-323, June.
    2. Kalina Manova, 2013. "Credit Constraints, Heterogeneous Firms, and International Trade," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(2), pages 711-744.
    3. Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg, 2004. "Outsourcing, Foreign Ownership, and Productivity: Evidence from UK Establishment‐level Data," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 817-832, November.
    4. John H Dunning, 2009. "Location and the multinational enterprise: A neglected factor?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(1), pages 5-19, January.
    5. Bernard, Andrew B. & Bradford Jensen, J., 1999. "Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-25, February.
    6. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    7. Arie Y Lewin & Silvia Massini & Carine Peeters, 2009. "Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(8), pages 1406-1406, October.
    8. Helpman, Elhanan, 2011. "Understanding Global Trade," Economics Books, Harvard University Press, number 9780674060784, December.
    9. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    11. Isabel Faeth, 2009. "Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment - A Tale Of Nine Theoretical Models," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(1), pages 165-196, February.
    12. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. "The rise of offshoring: it's not wine for cloth anymore," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 59-102.
    13. De Maeseneire, Wouter & Claeys, Tine, 2012. "SMEs, foreign direct investment and financial constraints: The case of Belgium," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 408-424.
    14. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    15. Schmeisser, Bjoern, 2013. "A Systematic Review of Literature on Offshoring of Value Chain Activities," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 390-406.
    16. Michael Pickhardt & Jordi Sarda, 2011. "The size of the underground economy in Germany: a correction of the record and new evidence from the modified-cash-deposit-ratio approach," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 143-163, August.
    17. Arie Lewin & Silvia Massini & Carine Peeters, 2008. "Why are companies offshoring innovation ?the emerging global race for talent," Working Papers CEB 08-009, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    18. Michael Pickhardt & Jordi Sardà, 2015. "Size and causes of the underground economy in Spain: a correction of the record and new evidence from the MCDR approach," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 403-429, April.
    19. Klovland, Jan Tore, 1984. " Tax Evasion and the Demand for Currency in Norway and Sweden. Is There a Hidden Relationship?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(4), pages 423-439.
    20. Kedia, Ben L. & Mukherjee, Debmalya, 2009. "Understanding offshoring: A research framework based on disintegration, location and externalization advantages," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 250-261, July.
    21. Marco Capasso & Lucia Cusmano & Andrea Morrison, 2013. "The Determinants of Outsourcing and Offshoring Strategies in Industrial Districts: Evidence from Italy," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(4), pages 465-479, April.
    22. Ozkan, Aydin & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2004. "Corporate cash holdings: An empirical investigation of UK companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2103-2134, September.
    23. Christoph Grimpe & Ulrich Kaiser, 2010. "Balancing Internal and External Knowledge Acquisition: The Gains and Pains from R&D Outsourcing," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(8), pages 1483-1509, December.
    24. Hildegart Ahumada & Facundo Alvaredo & Alfredo Canavese, 2007. "The Monetary Method And The Size Of The Shadow Economy: A Critical Assessment," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(2), pages 363-371, June.
    25. Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2004. "A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(1), pages 3-18, January.
    26. Pol Antras & Elhanan Helpman, 2004. "Global Sourcing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(3), pages 552-580, June.
    27. Opler, Tim & Pinkowitz, Lee & Stulz, Rene & Williamson, Rohan, 1999. "The determinants and implications of corporate cash holdings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 3-46, April.
    28. Buckley, Peter J., 2009. "Internalisation thinking: From the multinational enterprise to the global factory," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 224-235, June.
    29. Al-Najjar, Basil, 2013. "The financial determinants of corporate cash holdings: Evidence from some emerging markets," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 77-88.
    30. Philip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply," NBER Chapters, in: The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply, pages 1-37, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    31. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2004. "Does Local Financial Development Matter?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(3), pages 929-969.
    32. Graf, Michael & Mudambi, Susan M., 2005. "The outsourcing of IT-enabled business processes: A conceptual model of the location decision," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 253-268, June.
    33. Basile, Roberto, 2001. "Export behaviour of Italian manufacturing firms over the nineties: the role of innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1185-1201, October.
    34. John H Dunning, 1998. "Location and the Multinational Enterprise: A Neglected Factor?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(1), pages 45-66, March.
    35. Karsten Bjerring Olsen, 2006. "Productivity Impacts of Offshoring and Outsourcing: A Review," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2006/1, OECD Publishing.
    36. John H Dunning, 1988. "The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(1), pages 1-31, March.
    37. Majocchi, Antonio & Bacchiocchi, Emanuele & Mayrhofer, Ulrike, 2005. "Firm size, business experience and export intensity in SMEs: A longitudinal approach to complex relationships," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 719-738, December.
    38. Freixanet, Joan, 2012. "Export promotion programs: Their impact on companies’ internationalization performance and competitiveness," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 1065-1086.
    39. Bhattacharyya, Dilip K, 1990. "An Econometric Method of Estimating the 'Hidden Economy,' United Kingdom (1960-1984): Estimates and Tests," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(402), pages 703-717, September.
    40. Friedrich Schneider, 2011. "The Shadow Economy Labour Force," World Economics, World Economics, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 12(4), pages 53-92, October.
    41. Farok J. Contractor & Vikas Kumar & Sumit K. Kundu & Torben Pedersen, 2010. "Reconceptualizing the Firm in a World of Outsourcing and Offshoring: The Organizational and Geographical Relocation of High-Value Company Functions," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(s2), pages 1417-1433, December.
    42. Miguel A. Ferreira & Antonio S. Vilela, 2004. "Why Do Firms Hold Cash? Evidence from EMU Countries," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 10(2), pages 295-319, June.
    43. Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg & Larsen, Marcus M. & Pedersen, Torben, 2013. "The organizational design of offshoring: Taking stock and moving forward," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 315-323.
    44. Alan M. Rugman & Simon Collinson, 2005. "Multinational Enterprises in the New Europe: Are They Really Global?," Working Papers 2005-12, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
    45. Elia, Stefano & Mariotti, Ilaria & Piscitello, Lucia, 2009. "The impact of outward FDI on the home country's labour demand and skill composition," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 357-372, August.
    46. Diana Farrell, 2005. "Offshoring: Value Creation through Economic Change," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 675-683, May.
    47. Angels Pelegrín & Catalina Bolancé, 2011. "Offshoring and company characteristics: some evidence from the analysis of Spanish firm data," Working Papers 2011/16, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    48. Pla-Barber, José & Alegre, Joaquín, 2007. "Analysing the link between export intensity, innovation and firm size in a science-based industry," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 275-293, June.
    49. Jonathan P. Doh, 2005. "Offshore Outsourcing: Implications for International Business and Strategic Management Theory and Practice," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 695-704, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Mazzola, Erica & Bruccoleri, Manfredi & Perrone, Giovanni, 2019. "The curvilinear effect of manufacturing outsourcing and captive-offshoring on firms' innovation: The role of temporal endurance," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 211(C), pages 197-210.
    2. Gokalp, Omer N. & Lee, Seung-Hyun & Peng, Mike W., 2017. "Competition and corporate tax evasion: An institution-based view," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 258-269.
    3. Silvia Domeneghetti & Andrea Vaona, 2015. "Regional aspects of aggregate profitability dynamics in Italy," Working Papers 04/2015, University of Verona, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Empirics of global sourcing; Globalization; Offshoring; Shadow economy;

    JEL classification:

    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade
    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:23:y:2014:i:6:p:1153-1166. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.