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Size and causes of the underground economy in Spain: a correction of the record and new evidence from the MCDR approach

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  • Michael Pickhardt
  • Jordi Sardà

Abstract

We review existing estimates of the size of the Spanish underground economy, apply the Ahumada et al. (Rev Income Wealth 53(2):363–371, 2007 ) correction procedure to some of them and calculate the size of the underground economy in Spain for the period 1960–2009 by using the modified-cash-deposits-ratio (MCDR) approach recently developed by Pickhardt and Sardà (Eur J Law Econ 32(1):143–163, 2011) . We then extend the MCDR approach with respect to an analysis of the causes of the Spanish underground economy. Contrary to most other studies, we show that the latter is not predominantly caused by tax pressure, but by labor market aspects, macroeconomic influences and criminal activities. Based on these findings we derive some unprecedented policy recommendations. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Pickhardt & Jordi Sardà, 2015. "Size and causes of the underground economy in Spain: a correction of the record and new evidence from the MCDR approach," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 403-429, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:ejlwec:v:39:y:2015:i:2:p:403-429
    DOI: 10.1007/s10657-013-9431-y
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mai Hassan & Friedrich Schneider, 2016. "Modelling the Egyptian Shadow Economy: A Currency Demand and A MIMIC Model Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 5727, CESifo.
    2. Gamal, Awadh Ahmed Mohammed & Rambeli, Norimah & Abdul Jalil, Norasibah & Kuperan Viswanathan, K., 2019. "A modified Currency Demand Function and the Malaysian shadow economy: Evidence from ARDL bounds testing approach," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 266-281.
    3. Rios, Vicente, 2019. "New Evidence on the Size and Drivers of the Shadow Economy in Spain: A Model Averaging Approach," MPRA Paper 97504, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Maria José Portillo Navarro & Pilar Ortiz García & Francisco Morales González, 2017. "Fraude Fiscal, Turismo Y Economía Sumergida En España. Un Análisis Por Cc Aa," Revista de Estudios Regionales, Universidades Públicas de Andalucía, vol. 1, pages 101-123.
    5. Guerino Ardizzi & Carmelo Petraglia & Massimiliano Piacenza & Gilberto Turati, 2014. "Measuring the Underground Economy with the Currency Demand Approach: A Reinterpretation of the Methodology, With an Application to Italy," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(4), pages 747-772, December.
    6. Hajilee, Massomeh & Stringer, Donna Y. & Hayes, Linda A., 2021. "On the link between the shadow economy and stock market development: An asymmetry analysis," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 303-316.
    7. Michael Pickhardt & Jordi Sardà, "undated". "Cash, Hoarding and the Underground Economy," Working Papers 201282, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
    8. Amendolagine, Vito & Capolupo, Rosa & Ferri, Giovanni, 2014. "Innovativeness, offshoring and black economy decisions. Evidence from Italian manufacturing firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1153-1166.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Underground economy; Shadow economy; Hidden economy; Cash-deposit-ratio; Currency demand approach; MIMIC approach; O17; H26; C22;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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