Trading Efficiency in Water Quality Trading Markets: An Assessment of Trade-Offs
Declining water quality as a result of increased nutrient leaching is a serious and growing concern, both internationally and in New Zealand. Water pollution issues have traditionally been addressed with command-and-control type regulation, but market-based nutrient trading schemes are becoming more widespread. In New Zealand, a cap-and-trade system has been implemented in Lake Taupo and another has been designed for Lake Rotorua. Despite the importance placed on avoiding transaction costs in water quality trading markets, there has been little discussion in the literature of practical policies to decrease these transaction costs, or any real assessment of when it is and is not optimal to decrease transaction costs. This paper begins to address these issues. We find that strong efforts to control time-of-trade transaction costs are most likely to be worthwhile in schemes with heterogeneous participants and large expected values and volumes of trading. The trading inefficiency that results from search and bargaining, and trade registration costs can be minimised at some cost. Regulators can reduce trade approval costs if they establish baseline leaching levels for all participants and design standardised leaching monitoring systems as part of the set-up of the system, and monitor all sources equally regardless of whether participants trade instead of estimating and approving changes in traders’ leaching at the time of each trade (as occurs in a baseline-and-credit system). Finally we find that while regulators may be tempted to restrict trading or increase measuring and monitoring requirements to increase the environmental certainty of a scheme’s outcome, environmental risk may be better addressed through a less certain but more stringent environmental target.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Level 1, 97 Cuba Street, P.O. Box 24390, Wellington|
Web page: http://www.motu.org.nz
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Krutilla, Kerry & Krause, Rachel, 2011. "Transaction Costs and Environmental Policy: An Assessment Framework and Literature Review," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 4(3–4), pages 261-354, April.
- R. Prabodanie & John Raffensperger & Mark Milke, 2010. "A Pollution Offset System for Trading Non-Point Source Water Pollution Permits," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 45(4), pages 499-515, April.
- Shimshack, Jay P. & Ward, Michael B., 2007.
"Enforcement and over-compliance,"
25993, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Jay P. Shimshack & Michael B. Ward, 2007. "Enforcement and Over-Compliance," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0706, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Nguyen, Nga & Shortle, James S., 2006. "Transactions Costs and Point-Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Trading," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21096, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Meredith Fowlie & Jeffrey M. Perloff, 2013.
"Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 95(5), pages 1640-1652, December.
- Fowlie, Meredith & Perloff, Jeffrey M., 2008. "Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt70f62476, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Fowlie, Meredith & Perloff, Jeffrey M, 2008. "Distributing pollution rights in cap-and-trade programs : are outcomes independent of allocation?," CUDARE Working Paper Series 0968R, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- Suzi Kerr & Kelly Lock, 2008. "Nutrient Trading in Lake Rotorua: Cost Sharing and Allowance Allocation," Working Papers 09_09, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
- Suzi Kerr & Kit Rutherford, 2008. "Nutrient Trading in Lake Rotorua: Determining Net Nutrient Inputs," Working Papers 08_03, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
- Solomon, Barry D., 1999. "New directions in emissions trading: the potential contribution of new institutional economics," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 371-387, September.
- Kelly Lock & Suzi Kerr, 2008. "Nutrient Trading in Lake Rotorua: Overview of a Prototype System," Working Papers 08_02, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
- Martin L. Weitzman, 1974.
"Prices vs. Quantities,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 41(4), pages 477-491.
- Stephenson, Kurt & Bosch, Darrell J., 2003. "Nonpoint Source And Carbon Sequestration Credit Trading: What Can The Two Learn From Each Other?," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22229, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Zhang, Junlian, 2007. "Barriers to water markets in the Heihe River basin in northwest China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 32-40, January.
- Stavins Robert N., 1995. "Transaction Costs and Tradeable Permits," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 133-148, September.
- Lata Gangadharan, 2000. "Transaction Costs in Pollution Markets: An Empirical Study," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 76(4), pages 601-614.
- Kelly Lock & Suzi Kerr, 2008. "Nutrient Trading in Lake Rotorua: Choosing the Scope of a Nutrient Trading System," Working Papers 08_05, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
- Jaffe, Adam B. & Newell, Richard G. & Stavins, Robert N., 2003. "Chapter 11 Technological change and the environment," Handbook of Environmental Economics, in: K. G. Mäler & J. R. Vincent (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 461-516 Elsevier.
- Suzi Kerr & Joanna Hendy & Shuguang Liu & Alexander S.P. Pfaff, 2004.
"Tropical Forest Protection, Uncertainty, and the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Mitigation Policies,"
- Suzi Kerr & Joanna Hendy & Shuguang Liu & Alexander S. P. Pfaff, 2004. "Tropical Forest Protection, Uncertainty, and the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Mitigation Policies," Working Papers 04_03, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
- McCann, Laura & Colby, Bonnie & Easter, K. William & Kasterine, Alexander & Kuperan, K.V., 2005. "Transaction cost measurement for evaluating environmental policies," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(4), pages 527-542, March.
- Richard T. Woodward, 2003. "Lessons about Effluent Trading from a Single Trade," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 25(1), pages 235-245.
- Juan-Pablo Montero, 1999. "Voluntary Compliance with Market-Based Environmental Policy: Evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(5), pages 998-1033, October.
- Tom Tietenberg, 1995. "Tradeable permits for pollution control when emission location matters: What have we learned?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(2), pages 95-113, March.
- Hanna L. Breetz & Karen Fisher-Vanden & Hannah Jacobs & Claire Schary, 2005. "Trust and Communication: Mechanisms for Increasing Farmers’ Participation in Water Quality Trading," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 81(2).
- Meredith Fowlie & Stephen P. Holland & Erin T. Mansur, 2009.
"What Do Emissions Markets Deliver and to Whom? Evidence from Southern California's NOx Trading Program,"
NBER Working Papers
15082, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Meredith Fowlie & Stephen P. Holland & Erin T. Mansur, 2012. "What Do Emissions Markets Deliver and to Whom? Evidence from Southern California's NOx Trading Program," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 965-93, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mtu:wpaper:11_15. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Maxine Watene)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.