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The Impact of Foreign Liabilities on Small Firms: Firm-Level Evidence from the Korean Crisis

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  • Yun Jung Kim

    (University of Michigan)

  • Linda L. Tesar

    (University of Michigan and NBER)

  • Jing Zhang

    (University of Michigan)

Abstract

Using Korean firm-level data on publicly-listed and privately-held firms together with firm exit data, we find strong evidence of the balance-sheet effect for small firms at both the intensive and extensive margins. During the crisis, small firms with more short-term foreign debt are more likely to go bankrupt, and experience larger sales declines conditional on survival. The extensive margin accounts for a large fraction of small firmsÕ adjustment during the crisis. Consistent with many studies in the literature, large firms with larger exposure to foreign debt paradoxically have better performance during the crisis at both the intensive and extensive margin.

Suggested Citation

  • Yun Jung Kim & Linda L. Tesar & Jing Zhang, 2011. "The Impact of Foreign Liabilities on Small Firms: Firm-Level Evidence from the Korean Crisis," Working Papers 620, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  • Handle: RePEc:mie:wpaper:620
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    3. Emil Verner & Győző Gyöngyösi, 2020. "Household Debt Revaluation and the Real Economy: Evidence from a Foreign Currency Debt Crisis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 110(9), pages 2667-2702, September.
    4. Małgorzata Skibińska, 2018. "Transmission of monetary policy and exchange rate shocks under foreign currency lending," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(4), pages 506-525, July.
    5. Caballero, Julián, 2021. "Corporate dollar debt and depreciations: All’s well that ends well?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).
    6. Friederike Niepmann & Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr, 2017. "Foreign Currency Loans and Credit Risk: Evidence from U.S. Banks," CESifo Working Paper Series 6700, CESifo.
    7. Stefan Avdjiev & Valentina Bruno & Catherine Koch & Hyun Song Shin, 2019. "The Dollar Exchange Rate as a Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Investment," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 67(1), pages 151-173, March.
    8. Valentina Bruno & Hyun Song Shin, 2020. "Currency Depreciation and Emerging Market Corporate Distress," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 66(5), pages 1935-1961, May.
    9. Bryan Hardy, 2018. "Foreign currency borrowing, balance sheet shocks and real outcomes," BIS Working Papers 758, Bank for International Settlements.
    10. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Xiaoxi Liu & Ilhyock Shim, 2021. "Exchange Rate Fluctuations and Firm Leverage," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 69(1), pages 90-121, March.
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    12. Bryan Hardy & Felipe Saffie, 2019. "From carry trades to trade credit: financial intermediation by non-financial corporations," BIS Working Papers 773, Bank for International Settlements.
    13. Lorena Keller, 2018. "Prudential Capital Controls and Risk Misallocation: Bank Lending Channel," 2018 Meeting Papers 129, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    14. Jorge Fernández B. & Fernando Pino M. & Francisco Vásquez L., 2020. "Corporate-Sector Functional Currency: An International Comparison," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 882, Central Bank of Chile.
    15. José Antonio Morales Castro & Francisco López-Herrera, 2021. "Ganancias cambiarias en empresas mexicanas y variables fundamentales y económicas," Remef - Revista Mexicana de Economía y Finanzas Nueva Época REMEF (The Mexican Journal of Economics and Finance), Instituto Mexicano de Ejecutivos de Finanzas, IMEF, vol. 16(2), pages 1-21, Abril - J.
    16. Delis, Manthos & Politsidis, Panagiotis & Sarno, Lucio, 2018. "Foreign currency lending," MPRA Paper 88197, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. José Antonio Morales Castro & Francisco López-Herrera, 2021. "Ganancias cambiarias en empresas mexicanas y variables fundamentales y económicas," Remef - Revista Mexicana de Economía y Finanzas Nueva Época REMEF (The Mexican Journal of Economics and Finance), Instituto Mexicano de Ejecutivos de Finanzas, IMEF, vol. 16(2), pages 1-21, Abril - J.
    18. Kara, Alper & Hacihasanoglu, Yavuz Selim & Unalmis, Deren, 2021. "Financial contagion and the role of firm characteristics," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 38(C).
    19. Jesse Schreger & Wenxin Du, 2014. "Sovereign Risk, Currency Risk, and Corporate Balance Sheets," Working Paper 209056, Harvard University OpenScholar.
    20. Kim, Yun Jung, 2016. "Foreign currency exposure and balance sheet effects: A firm-level analysis for Korea," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 64-79.
    21. A. M. M. Shahiduzzaman Quoreshi & Trudy-Ann Stone, 2019. "Do Global Value Chains Make Firms More Vulnerable to Trade Shocks?—Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Sweden," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 12(3), pages 1-16, September.
    22. Hale, Galina B. & Jones, Peter C. & Spiegel, Mark M., 2020. "Home currency issuance in international bond markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    23. Ma Degong & Farid Ullah & Muhammad Sualeh Khattak & Muhammad Anwar, 2018. "Do International Capabilities and Resources Configure Firm’s Sustainable Competitive Performance? Research within Pakistani SMEs," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(11), pages 1-16, November.
    24. Rosario Aldunate, 2021. "Financial Constraints: a Propagation Mechanism of Foreign Shocks," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 897, Central Bank of Chile.
    25. Eggers, Fabian, 2020. "Masters of disasters? Challenges and opportunities for SMEs in times of crisis," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 199-208.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    financial crisis; firm-level data; balance-sheet effects; Korean economy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

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