IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/lbo/lbowps/2012_04.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Horizontal Agreements and R&D Complementarities: Merger versus RJV

Author

Listed:
  • Ben Ferrett

    (School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, UK)

  • Joanna Poyago-Theotoky

    (School of Economics, La Trobe University, Australia)

Abstract

We study the decision of two firms within an oligopoly concerning whether to enter into a horizontal agreement to exploit complementarities between their R&D activities and, if so, whether to merge or form a research joint venture (RJV). In contrast to horizontal merger, there is a probability that an RJV contract will fail to enforce R&D sharing. We find, first, that a horizontal agreement always arises. The insiders’ merger/RJV choice involves a trade-off. While merger offers certainty that R&D complementarities will be exploited, it leads to a profit-reducing reaction by outsiders on the product market, where competition is Cournot. Greater brand similarity and contract enforceability (“quality”) both favour RJV, while greater R&D complementarity favours merger. Interestingly, the insiders may choose to merge even when RJV contracts are always enforceable, and they may opt to form an RJV even when the likelihood of enforceability is negligible.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Ferrett & Joanna Poyago-Theotoky, 2012. "Horizontal Agreements and R&D Complementarities: Merger versus RJV," Discussion Paper Series 2012_04, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Apr 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:lbo:lbowps:2012_04
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/sbe/RePEc/lbo/lbowps/Ferrett_WP2012_4.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-1137, December.
    2. Leahy, Dermot & Neary, J Peter, 1997. "Public Policy towards R&D in Oligopolistic Industries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 642-662, September.
    3. Hart, Oliver & Moore, John, 1990. "Property Rights and the Nature of the Firm," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(6), pages 1119-1158, December.
    4. Roberto Hernán & Pedro L. Marín & Georges Siotis, 2003. "An empirical evaluation of the determinants of Research Joint Venture Formation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 75-89, March.
    5. Matsushima Noriaki & Sato Yasuhiro & Yamamoto Kazuhiro, 2013. "Horizontal Mergers, Firm Heterogeneity, and R&D Investments," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 13(2), pages 959-990, August.
    6. Joseph Farrell and Carl Shapiro., 2000. "Scale Economies and Synergies in Horizontal Merger Analysis," Economics Working Papers E00-291, University of California at Berkeley.
    7. Gordon M. Phillips & Alexei Zhdanov, 2013. "R&D and the Incentives from Merger and Acquisition Activity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(1), pages 34-78.
    8. Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna, 1995. "Equilibrium and Optimal Size of a Research Joint Venture in an Oligopoly with Spillovers," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(2), pages 209-226, June.
    9. Bhattacharya, Sudipto & Glazer, Jacob & Sappington, David E. M., 1992. "Licensing and the sharing of knowledge in research joint ventures," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 43-69, February.
    10. Tao, Zhigang & Wu, Changqi, 1997. "On the organization of cooperative research and development: Theory and evidence," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 573-596, August.
    11. Suzumura, Kotaro, 1992. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in an Oligopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1307-1320, December.
    12. Christos Cabolis & Constantine Manasakis & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2008. "Horizontal Mergers and Acquisitions with Endogenous Efficiency Gains," Working Papers 0817, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    13. Stephen W. Salant & Sheldon Switzer & Robert J. Reynolds, 1983. "Losses From Horizontal Merger: The Effects of an Exogenous Change in Industry Structure on Cournot-Nash Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(2), pages 185-199.
    14. Olivier Bertrand & Katariina Nilsson Hakkala & Pehr-Johan Norbäck & Lars Persson, 2012. "Should countries block foreign takeovers of R&D champions and promote greenfield entry?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(3), pages 1083-1124, August.
    15. Carl Davidson & Ben Ferrett, 2007. "Mergers in Multidimensional Competition," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 74(296), pages 695-712, November.
    16. Gregor Andrade & Mark Mitchell & Erik Stafford, 2001. "New Evidence and Perspectives on Mergers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 103-120, Spring.
    17. Fershtman, Chaim & Gandal, Neil, 1994. "Disadvantageous semicollusion," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 141-154, June.
    18. Klaus Gugler & Ralph Siebert, 2007. "Market Power versus Efficiency Effects of Mergers and Research Joint Ventures: Evidence from the Semiconductor Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(4), pages 645-659, November.
    19. Darmot Leahy & J. Neary, 1997. "Veřejná politiky v oblasti výzkumu a vývoje v oligopolním průmyslu [Public Policy Towards R & D in Oligopolistic Industry]," Politická ekonomie, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 1997(5), pages 683-698.
    20. Brod, Andrew & Shivakumar, Ram, 1999. "Advantageous Semi-collusion," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 221-230, June.
    21. Lars-Hendrik Röller & Ralph Siebert & Mihkel M. Tombak, 2007. "Why Firms Form (or do not Form) RJVS," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(522), pages 1122-1144, July.
    22. Kamien, Morton I & Muller, Eitan & Zang, Israel, 1992. "Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1293-1306, December.
    23. Perez-Castrillo, J. David & Sandonis, Joel, 1997. "Disclosure of know-how in research joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 51-75, February.
    24. Pastor, Maite & Sandonis, Joel, 2002. "Research joint ventures vs. cross licensing agreements: an agency approach," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 215-249, February.
    25. Raymond Deneckere & Carl Davidson, 1985. "Incentives to Form Coalitions with Bertrand Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(4), pages 473-486, Winter.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Joanna Poyago-Theotoky & Ben Ferrett, "undated". "Horizontal Agreements and R&D Complementarities: Merger versus RJV," CRIEFF Discussion Papers 1201, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
    2. Clark, Derek J. & Sand, Jan Yngve, 2010. "Endogenous technology sharing in R&D intensive industries," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 4, pages 1-48.
    3. Dusanee Kesavayuth & Sang-Ho Lee & Vasileios Zikos, 2018. "Merger and Innovation Incentives in a Differentiated Industry," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(2), pages 207-221, May.
    4. Erkal, Nisvan & Piccinin, Daniel, 2010. "Cooperative R&D under uncertainty with free entry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 74-85, January.
    5. Paul O'Sullivan, 2013. "Research Joint Ventures: A Barrier To Entry?," Economics Department Working Paper Series n246-13.pdf, Department of Economics, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
    6. Paul O'Sullivan, 2013. "Less Is More? Research Joint Ventures And Entry Deterrence," Economics Department Working Paper Series n245-13.pdf, Department of Economics, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
    7. Tomaso Duso & Lars-Hendrik Röller & Jo Seldeslachts, 2014. "Collusion Through Joint R&D: An Empirical Assessment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 96(2), pages 349-370, May.
    8. Cabolis, C. & Manasakis, C. & Moreno, D. & Petrakis, E., 2021. "The interactions of R&D investments and horizontal mergers," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 187(C), pages 507-534.
    9. Paul O'Sullivan, 2014. "R&D Leadership And Research Joint Ventures," Economics Department Working Paper Series n251-14.pdf, Department of Economics, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
    10. Kaiser, Ulrich & Kuhn, Johan M., 2012. "Long-run effects of public–private research joint ventures: The case of the Danish Innovation Consortia support scheme," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 913-927.
    11. Gamal Atallah, 2002. "Vertical R&D Spillovers, Cooperation, Market Structure, and Innovation," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 179-209.
    12. Paul O'Sullivan, 2014. "DEMAND UNCERTAINTY, R&D LEADERSHIP AND RESEARCH JOINT VENTUREs," Economics Department Working Paper Series n252-14.pdf, Department of Economics, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
    13. Belderbos, Rene & Carree, Martin & Diederen, Bert & Lokshin, Boris & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2004. "Heterogeneity in R&D cooperation strategies," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(8-9), pages 1237-1263, November.
    14. Miyagiwa, Kaz & Ohno, Yuka, 2002. "Uncertainty, spillovers, and cooperative R&D," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 855-876, June.
    15. Silipo, Damiano B., 2008. "Incentives and forms of cooperation in research and development," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 101-119, June.
    16. Beladi, Hamid & Mukherjee, Arijit, 2012. "Footloose foreign firm and profitable domestic merger," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 186-194.
    17. Maarten Pieter Schinkel & Leonard Treuren, 2021. "Corporate Social Responsibility by Joint Agreement," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 21-063/VII, Tinbergen Institute.
    18. Hinloopen, Jeroen, 2000. "Strategic R&D Co-operatives," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 153-185, June.
    19. Suetens, Sigrid, 2005. "Cooperative and noncooperative R&D in experimental duopoly markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(1-2), pages 63-82, February.
    20. Cary Deck & Nisvan Erkal, 2013. "An Experimental Analysis Of Dynamic Incentives To Share Knowledge," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(2), pages 1622-1639, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    horizontal merger; research joint venture (RJV); contract enforceability; process R&D; R&D complementarity;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lbo:lbowps:2012_04. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/delbouk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Huw Edwards (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/delbouk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.