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The Gender Gap in Early Career in Mongolia

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  • Pastore, Francesco

    () (Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli)

Abstract

Relatively little is known about the youth labour market in general and about gender differences in Mongolia, one of the fifty poorest countries in the world. This paper addresses the issue by taking advantage of a School to Work Survey (SWTS) on young people aged 15-29 years carried out in 2006. On average, female wages are not lower than those of males. However, women have a much higher average educational level than men: in fact, although not statistically significant among teenagers (15-19), the conditional gender gap becomes significant and sizeable for the over-20. The Juhn, Murphy and Pierce (1993) decomposition confirms that, if wages were paid equally, women should have 11.7% more considering only their educational advantage and overall 22% more, a substantial gap for the low earnings of Mongolians.

Suggested Citation

  • Pastore, Francesco, 2009. "The Gender Gap in Early Career in Mongolia," IZA Discussion Papers 4480, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4480
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2008. "The gender gap in early-career wage growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 983-1024, July.
    2. Filippin, Antonio & Ichino, Andrea, 2005. "Gender wage gap in expectations and realizations," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 125-145, February.
    3. Pastore, Francesco & Verashchagina, Alina, 2007. "When Does Transition Increase the Gender Wage Gap? An Application to Belarus," IZA Discussion Papers 2796, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. repec:adr:anecst:y:2003:i:71-72:p:09 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Francesco Pastore & Alina Verashchagina, 2011. "When does transition increase the gender wage gap?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 19(2), pages 333-369, April.
    6. Kunze, Astrid, 2005. "The evolution of the gender wage gap," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 73-97, February.
    7. Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
    8. Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-442, June.
    9. Francesco Pastore & Izabela Marcinkowska, 2004. "The Gender Wage Gap Among Young People in Italy," CELPE Discussion Papers 82, CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy.
    10. Halvorsen, Robert & Palmquist, Raymond, 1980. "The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 474-475, June.
    11. repec:ilo:ilowps:379743 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pastore, Francesco & Sattar, Sarosh & Sinha, Nistha & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2016. "When Do Gender Wage Differences Emerge? A Study of Azerbaijan's Labor Market," IZA Discussion Papers 9660, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete & Precious Zikhali, 2011. "Social exclusion and labour market outcomes: evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 10(3), pages 233-250, September.
    3. Francesco Pastore & Sarosh Sattar & Erwin Tiongson, 2013. "Gender differences in earnings and labor supply in early career: evidence from Kosovo’s school-to-work transition survey," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-34, December.
    4. Nopo, Hugo R. & Daza, Nancy & Ramos, Johanna, 2011. "Gender Earnings Gaps in the World," IZA Discussion Papers 5736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Francesco Pastore, 2016. "‘I Wish I Had 100 Dollars a Month …’ The Determinants of Poverty in Mongolia," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 28(5), pages 934-956, November.
    6. Tehmina Khan & Monazza Aslam, 2013. "Mongolia : Gender Disparities in Labor Markets and Policy Suggestions," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16500, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    decomposition analysis; earnings equations; school-to-work transitions; gender wage gap; Asia; Mongolia;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
    • P30 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - General
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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