IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Job Losses, Outsourcing and Relocation: Empirical Evidence Using Microdata

  • Artís, Manuel


    (University of Barcelona)

  • Ramos, Raul


    (University of Barcelona)

  • Surinach, Jordi


    (University of Barcelona)

Using microdata, we analyse the determinants of firm relocation and outsourcing decisions and their effects on firms’ employment decisions. The results for a sample of 32 countries show that both strategies have been more intense in the EU-15 countries than in the rest and that, in some cases, they have been complementary. Regarding the determinants, we have found that while some characteristics such as size, age, activity sector, main market or belonging to a group affect both decisions, other such as a higher innovation, demand sensitivity or productivity explain why some firms choose to subcontract instead of relocate.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2978.

in new window

Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2978
Contact details of provider: Postal:
IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany

Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page:

Order Information: Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Adelheid Holl, 2004. "Start-ups and relocations: Manufacturing plant location in Portugal," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 83(4), pages 649-668, October.
  2. Holl, Adelheid, 2008. "Production subcontracting and location," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 299-309, May.
  3. Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2005. "Fear of service outsourcing: is it justified?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 20(42), pages 308-347, 04.
  4. Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003. "Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(3), pages 278-294, September.
  5. Katharine G. Abraham & Susan K. Taylor, 1993. "Firms' Use of Outside Contractors: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 4468, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Antoine Terracol, 2002. "TRIPROBIT: Stata module to estimate trivariate probit model using the GHK simulator," Statistical Software Components S424302, Boston College Department of Economics.
  7. Carmen Diaz-Mora & Angela Triguero-Cano, 2011. "WHY DO SOME FIRMS CONTRACT OUT PRODUCTION? Evidence from firm-level panel data," Post-Print hal-00681222, HAL.
  8. Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg, 2004. "Outsourcing, Foreign Ownership, and Productivity: Evidence from UK Establishment-level Data," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 817-832, November.
  9. Hervé Boulhol & Lionel Fontagné, 2006. "Deindustrialisation and the Fear of Relocations in the Industry," Working Papers 2006-07, CEPII research center.
  10. Tomiura, Eiichi, 2005. "Foreign outsourcing and firm-level characteristics: Evidence from Japanese manufacturers," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 255-271, June.
  11. Pennings, Enrico & Sleuwaegen, Leo, 2000. "International relocation: firm and industry determinants," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 179-186, May.
  12. Aleid E. Brouwer & Ilaria Mariotti & Jos N. van Ommeren, 2004. "The firm relocation decision: An empirical investigation," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 38(2), pages 335-347, 06.
  13. Pellenbarg, P.H. & Wissen, L.J.G. van & Dijk, J. van, 2002. "Firm relocation: state of the art and research prospects," Research Report 02D31, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
  14. Mol, Michael J., 2005. "Does being R&D intensive still discourage outsourcing?: Evidence from Dutch manufacturing," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 571-582, May.
  15. repec:dgr:rugsom:02d31 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Angela Triguero, & Carmen DÃŒaz Mora, . "Why do some firms contract out production?," Studies on the Spanish Economy 232, FEDEA.
  17. van Dijk, Jouke & Pellenbarg, Piet H., 1999. "Firm relocation decisions in The Netherlands: an ordered logit approach," ERSA conference papers ersa99pa418, European Regional Science Association.
  18. Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003. "MVPROBIT: Stata module to calculate multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood," Statistical Software Components S432601, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 25 Jan 2006.
  19. Karsten Bjerring Olsen, 2006. "Productivity Impacts of Offshoring and Outsourcing: A Review," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2006/1, OECD Publishing.
  20. Lucia Cusmano & Maria Luisa Mancusi & Andrea Morrison, 2006. "Globalisation of production and innovation: how outsourcing is reshaping an advanced manufacturing area," KITeS Working Papers 194, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Dec 2006.
  21. Leo Sleuwaegen & Enrico Pennings, 2006. "International Relocation Of Production: Where Do Firms Go?," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 53(4), pages 430-446, 09.
  22. Erol Taymaz & Yilmaz Kilicaslan, 2005. "Determinants of subcontracting and regional development: An empirical study on Turkish textile and engineering industries," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(5), pages 633-645.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2978. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.