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Self-Selection and Earnings During Volatile Transition

Author

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  • Dimova, Ralitza

    () (University of Manchester)

  • Gang, Ira N.

    () (Rutgers University)

Abstract

Using Bulgarian Integrated Household Surveys for 1995, 1997 and 2001 this paper explores determinants of labor force status – not working, public sector employment, private sector employment and self-employment – and earnings for each of the three employment sectors. We find that while skilled labor’s pattern of reallocation into the public sector remains roughly the same over time, the inflow of highly educated laborers into the private sector and selfemployment increases. These changes coincide with the erosion of the returns to observed skills in the private sector and self-employment, while the public sector continues to reward all types of education at higher than the elementary level.

Suggested Citation

  • Dimova, Ralitza & Gang, Ira N., 2004. "Self-Selection and Earnings During Volatile Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 1158, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1158
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Philippe Aghion & Olivier J. Blanchard, 1994. "On the Speed of Transition in Central Europe," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1994, Volume 9, pages 283-330 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Jennifer Hunt, 2002. "The Transition in East Germany: When Is a Ten-Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 148-169, January.
    3. Edward J. Bird & Johannes Schwarze & Gert G. Wagner, 1994. "Wage Effects of the Move toward Free Markets in East Germany," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 47(3), pages 390-400, April.
    4. Tito Boeri & Katherine Terrell, 2002. "Institutional Determinants of Labor Reallocation in Transition," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 51-76, Winter.
    5. Earle, John S. & Sakova, Zuzana, 2000. "Business start-ups or disguised unemployment? Evidence on the character of self-employment from transition economies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 575-601, September.
    6. Falaris, Evangelos M., 2004. "Private and public sector wages in Bulgaria," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 56-72, March.
    7. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    8. I Beleva & Richard Jackman & M Nenova-Amar, 1995. "The Labour Market in Bulgaria," CEP Discussion Papers dp0268, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    9. Jolliffe, Dean, 2002. "The Gender Wage Gap in Bulgaria: A Semiparametric Estimation of Discrimination," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 276-295, June.
    10. Catherine Y. Co & Ira N. Gang & Myeong-Su Yun, 2005. "Self-Employment and Wage Earning in Hungary," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(2), pages 150-165, May.
    11. Gang, Ira N. & Stuart, Robert C., 1997. "What difference does a country make? Earnings by Soviets in the Soviet Union and in the United States," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(Supplemen), pages 345-360.
    12. Robert S. Chase, 1998. "Markets for Communist Human Capital: Returns to Education and Experience in the Czech Republic and Slovakia," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 401-423, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:jcecon:v:45:y:2017:i:3:p:605-621 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Bhaumik, Sumon Kumar & Dimova, Ralitza & Nugent, Jeffrey B., 2011. "Off-farm labor supply and labor markets in rapidly changing circumstances: Bulgaria during transition," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 378-389, September.
    3. Sumon Kumar Bhaumik & Ira N. Gang & Myeong-Su Yun, 2006. "A note on poverty in Kosovo," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(8), pages 1177-1187.
    4. Gang, Ira N. & Schmillen, Achim, 2017. "Sometimes, winners lose: Economic disparity and indigenization in Kazakhstan," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 605-621.
    5. Bhaumik, Sumon Kumar & Gang, Ira N. & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2006. "Ethnic conflict and economic disparity: Serbians and Albanians in Kosovo," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 754-773, December.
    6. Sumon Kumar Bhaumik & Ralitza Dimova & Jeffrey B. Nugent, 2006. "Pulls, Pushes and Entitlement Failures in Labor Markets: Does the State of Development Matter?," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 06-07, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
    7. Ilhom Abdulloev & Ira N. Gang & John Landon-Lane, 2011. "Migration as a Substitute for Informal Activities: Evidence from Tajikistan," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1124, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    8. Sumon Bhaumik & Ira Gang & Myeong-Su Yun, 2005. "Ethnic Conflict and Economic Disparity: Serbians & Albanians in Kosovo," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp808, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    9. Ralitza Dimova, 2008. "The impact of labour reallocation and competitive pressure on TFP growth: firm-level evidence from crisis and transition ridden Bulgaria," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 321-338.
    10. Dimova, Ralitza & Gang, Ira N. & Landon-Lane, John, 2011. "Revealed Informal Activity," IZA Discussion Papers 5607, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
      • Ralitza Dimova & Ira N. Gang & John Landon-Lane, 2011. "Revealed Informal Activity," Working Papers 296, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
    11. Penka Kovacheva, 2011. "Human capital and wage inequality during transition: evidence from Bulgaria," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(2), pages 237-255.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    earnings; employment selection; Bulgaria;

    JEL classification:

    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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