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The Gender Wage Gap in Bulgaria: A Semiparametric Estimation of Discrimination

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  • Jolliffe, Dean

Abstract

Bulgaria's transition to a market economy has coincided with a large increase in wage inequality. Given the emphasis on wage leveling in pre-transition Bulgaria, the rise in wage inequality may be due to managers rewarding more productive workers; or it may be the result of rewarding non-economic characteristics such as gender. Using data from the 1995, nationally representative Bulgaria Integrated Household Survey, I examine whether gender discrimination is an important factor determining the gap in wages between men and women and the extent to which gender discrimination affects wage inequality. I model wage determination with a correction for sample selection as a Type III Tobit and estimate this model with the Honor?? et al. (1997) semiparametric estimator. Unlike the classic Heckman correction for sample selection, this estimator is consistent in the presence of heteroscedasticity. I bootstrap to estimate standard errors. Using separate wage regression estimates for men and women, an Oaxaca decomposition indicates that women's wages are 25 percent lower than men's wages and 85 percent of this differential is due to discrimination, or more precisely, due to differences in how men and women are rewarded for the same characteristics.
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  • Jolliffe, Dean, 2002. "The Gender Wage Gap in Bulgaria: A Semiparametric Estimation of Discrimination," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 276-295, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jcecon:v:30:y:2002:i:2:p:276-295
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    Cited by:

    1. Dimova, Ralitza & Gang, Ira N. & Landon-Lane, John, 2006. "Where to Work? The Role of the Household in Explaining Gender Differences in Labour Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 2476, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Münich, Daniel & Svejnar, Jan & Terrell, Katherine, 2004. "Do Markets Favor Women's Human Capital More than Planners?," IZA Discussion Papers 1393, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Stepán Jurajda & Katherine Terrell, 2009. "Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, pages 241-274.
    4. Ira N. Gang & Ralitza Dimova, 2004. "Self-Selection And Earnings During Volatile Transition," Departmental Working Papers 200409, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
    5. Tao Chen & Gautam Tripathi, 2014. "A simple consistent test of conditional symmetry in symmetrically trimmed tobit models," CREA Discussion Paper Series 14-04, Center for Research in Economic Analysis, University of Luxembourg.
    6. Bünstorf, Guido & Krabel, Stefan, 2014. "Gender and Immigration: Double Negative Effects in the Labor Market Outcomes of University Graduates in Germany?," Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100290, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    7. Ganguli, Ina & Terrell, Katherine, 2005. "Wage Ceilings and Floors: The Gender Gap in Ukraine's Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 1776, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Chi, Wei & Li, Bo, 2008. "Glass ceiling or sticky floor? Examining the gender earnings differential across the earnings distribution in urban China, 1987-2004," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 243-263, June.
    9. Wei-Bin ZHANG, 2014. "Gender Discrimination, Education and Economic Growth in a Generalized Uzawa-Lucas Two-Sector Model," Timisoara Journal of Economics and Business, West University of Timisoara, Romania, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 7(1), pages 1-34.
    10. Stepan Jurajda & Heike Harmgart, 2002. "Sex Segregation and Wage Gaps in East and West Germany," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp202, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    11. Jurajda, Stepan & Harmgart, Heike, 2007. "When do female occupations pay more?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 170-187, March.
    12. Akhmedjonov, Alisher, 2012. "New evidence on pay gap between men and women in Turkey," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 32-34.
    13. Falaris, Evangelos M., 2004. "Private and public sector wages in Bulgaria," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 56-72, March.
    14. Andrén, Daniela & Andrén, Thomas, 2007. "Occupational Gender Composition and Wages in Romania: From Planned Equality to Market Inequality?," IZA Discussion Papers 3152, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. Shiu, Ji-Liang, 2016. "Identification and estimation of endogenous selection models in the presence of misclassification errors," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 507-518.
    16. Jurajda, Štepán & Harmgart, Heike, 2004. "When Are ‘Female’ Occupations Paying More?," IZA Discussion Papers 985, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    17. Alena Bièáková & Jiøí Slaèálek & Michal Slavík, 2011. "Labor Supply after Transition: Evidence from the Czech Republic," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 61(4), pages 327-347, August.
    18. Jolliffe, Dean & Campos, Nauro F., 2005. "Does market liberalisation reduce gender discrimination? Econometric evidence from Hungary, 1986-1998," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-22, February.
    19. Bičáková, Alena & Slacalek, Jiri & Slavík, Michal, 2008. "Labor supply after transition: evidence from the Czech Republic," Working Paper Series 887, European Central Bank.
    20. Ng, Ying Chu, 2006. "Gender Earnings Differentials and Regional Economic Development in Urban China, 1988-97," WIDER Working Paper Series 136, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    21. Penka Kovacheva, 2011. "Human capital and wage inequality during transition: evidence from Bulgaria," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(2), pages 237-255.
    22. Chen, Tao & Tripathi, Gautam, 2017. "A simple consistent test of conditional symmetry in symmetrically trimmed tobit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 198(1), pages 29-40.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General

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