The Gender Wage Gap in Bulgaria: A Semiparametric Estimation of Discrimination
Bulgaria's transition to a market economy has coincided with a large increase in wage inequality. Given the emphasis on wage leveling in pre-transition Bulgaria, the rise in wage inequality may be due to managers rewarding more productive workers; or it may be the result of rewarding non-economic characteristics such as gender. Using data from the 1995, nationally representative Bulgaria Integrated Household Survey, I examine whether gender discrimination is an important factor determining the gap in wages between men and women and the extent to which gender discrimination affects wage inequality. I model wage determination with a correction for sample selection as a Type III Tobit and estimate this model with the Honoré et al. (1997) semiparametric estimator. Unlike the classic Heckman correction for sample selection, this estimator is consistent in the presence of heteroscedasticity. I bootstrap to estimate standard errors. Using separate wage regression estimates for men and women, an Oaxaca decomposition indicates that women's wages are 25 percent lower than men's wages and 85 percent of this differential is due to discrimination, or more precisely, due to differences in how men and women are rewarded for the same characteristics.
|Date of creation:||01 Jul 2001|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 734 763-5020
Fax: 734 763-5850
Web page: http://www.wdi.umich.edu
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Honore, Bo E. & Kyriazidou, Ekaterini & Udry, Christopher, 1997.
"Estimation of Type 3 Tobit models using symmetric trimming and pairwise comparisons,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 76(1-2), pages 107-128.
- Bo E. Honore & Ekaterini Kyriazidou & Christopher Udry, . "Estimation of Type 3 Tobit Models using Symmetric Trimming and Pairwise Comparisons," Home Pages _001, Princeton University, Department of Economics.
- Arabmazar, Abbas & Schmidt, Peter, 1981. "Further evidence on the robustness of the Tobit estimator to heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 253-258, November.
- Powell, James L., 1984. "Least absolute deviations estimation for the censored regression model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-325, July.
- Simon Appleton, 1996.
"The gender wage gap in three African countries,"
Economics Series Working Papers
WPS/1996-07, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Ronald Oaxaca, 1971.
"Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets,"
396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Christopher Ferrall, 1998. "Routines to maximize a function," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 7(38).
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1994.
"Returns to investment in education: A global update,"
Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1993. "Returns to investment in education : a global update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1067, The World Bank.
- David Neumark, 1988.
"Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Hurd, Michael, 1979. "Estimation in truncated samples when there is heteroscedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2-3), pages 247-258.
- Orazem, Peter F. & Vodopivec, Milan, 1999.
"Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market : the case of Estonia and Slovenia,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2087, The World Bank.
- Milan Vodopivec & Peter F. Orazem, 2000. "Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 283-303.
- Orazem, Peter & Vodopivec, Milan, 2000. "Male-Female Differences in Labor Market Outcomes During the Early Transition to Market: The Cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Staff General Research Papers 1889, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-94, July.
- Powell, James L, 1986. "Symmetrically Trimmed Least Squares Estimation for Tobit Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(6), pages 1435-60, November.
- Pagan, Adrian & Vella, Frank, 1989. "Diagnostic Tests for Models Based on Individual Data: A Survey," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(S), pages S29-59, Supplemen.
- Branko Milanovic, 1999. "Explaining the increase in inequality during transition," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 7(2), pages 299-341, July.
- Nelson, Forrest D, 1981. "A Test for Misspecification in the Censored Normal Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(5), pages 1317-29, September.
- Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1992. "The Gender Earnings Gap: Learning from International Comparisons," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 533-38, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2001-401. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Laurie Gendron)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.