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Let the Girls Learn! It is not Only about Math… It's about Gender Social Norms

Author

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  • Nollenberger, Natalia

    () (IE University)

  • Rodríguez-Planas, Núria

    () (Queens College, CUNY)

Abstract

Using PISA test scores from 11,527 second-generation immigrants coming from 35 different countries of ancestry and living in 9 host countries, we find that the positive effects of country-of-ancestry gender social norms on girls' math test scores relative to those of boys: (1) expand to other subjects (namely reading and science); (2) are shaped by beliefs on women's political empowerment and economic opportunity; and (3) are driven by parents' influencing their children's (especially their girls') preferences. Our evidence further suggest that these findings are driven by cognitive skills, suggesting that social gender norms affect parent's expectations on girls' academic knowledge relative to that of boys, but not on other attributes for success--such as non-cognitive skills. Taken together, our results highlight the relevance of general (as opposed to math-specific) gender stereotypes on the math gender gap, and suggest that parents' gender social norms shape youth's test scores by transmitting preferences for cognitive skills.

Suggested Citation

  • Nollenberger, Natalia & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2017. "Let the Girls Learn! It is not Only about Math… It's about Gender Social Norms," IZA Discussion Papers 10625, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10625
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Tindara Addabbo & Maddalena Davoli & Marina Murat, 2018. "Is there an immigrant-gender gap in education? An empirical investigation based on PISA data from Italy," Department of Economics 0124, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    2. repec:eee:ecoedu:v:63:y:2018:i:c:p:134-153 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Tindara Addabbo & Maddalena Davoli & Marina Murat, 2018. "Is there an immigrant-gender gap in education? An empirical investigation based on PISA data from Italy," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 136, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    4. Brunello, Giorgio & Crema, Angela & Rocco, Lorenzo, 2018. "Testing at Length If It Is Cognitive or Non-Cognitive," IZA Discussion Papers 11603, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender gap in math; reading and science; immigrants; beliefs and preferences; cognitive and non-cognitive skills; culture and institutions;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification

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