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Minorities, Human Capital and Long-Run Development: Persistence of Armenian and Greek Influence in Turkey

Author

Listed:
  • Eren Arbatli

    () (Faculty of Economic Sciences, NRU)

  • Leonardo Gokmen Gunes

    () (New Economic School, Moscow)

Abstract

We study the long-term economic legacy of highly-skilled minorities a century after their wholesale expulsion. Using mass expulsions of Armenian and Greek communities of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century as a unique natural experiment of history, we show that districts with greater presence of Armenian and Greek minorities at the end of the 19th century are systematically more densely populated, more urbanized, and more developed today. Results are robust to accounting for an extensive set of geographical and historical factors of development and minority settlement patterns. Matching type estimators, instrumental variable regressions, and a sub-province level case study corroborate our findings. Importantly, we provide evidence on the channels of persistence. Armenian and Greek contribution to long-run development is largely mediated by their legacy on local human capital accumulation. In comparison, the mediating effect of minority asset transfer on development appears less important.

Suggested Citation

  • Eren Arbatli & Leonardo Gokmen Gunes, "undated". "Minorities, Human Capital and Long-Run Development: Persistence of Armenian and Greek Influence in Turkey," HiCN Working Papers 251, Households in Conflict Network.
  • Handle: RePEc:hic:wpaper:251
    as

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Saleh, Mohamed, 2013. "On the Road to Heaven: Self-Selection, Religion, and Socio-Economic Status," IAST Working Papers 13-04, Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse (IAST), revised Dec 2015.
    2. repec:eee:deveco:v:127:y:2017:i:c:p:339-354 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Fabian Waldinger, 2012. "Peer Effects in Science: Evidence from the Dismissal of Scientists in Nazi Germany," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 838-861.
    4. Luigi Pascali, 2016. "Banks and Development: Jewish Communities in the Italian Renaissance and Current Economic Performance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 98(1), pages 140-158, March.
    5. Altug, Sumru & Filiztekin, Alpay & Pamuk, Şevket, 2008. "Sources of long-term economic growth for Turkey, 1880–2005," European Review of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(03), pages 393-430, December.
    6. Luigi Pascali, 2016. "Banks and Development: Jewish Communities in the Italian Renaissance and Current Economic Performance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 98(1), pages 140-158, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    human capital; economic development; expulsion; minorities; ethnicity; Armenians; Greeks; persistence. JEL Classification: O100; O430; P480; N400; Z120.;

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