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Graded Children – Evidence of Longrun Consequences of School Grades from a Nationwide Reform

Swedish elementary school children stopped receiving written end of year report cards following a grading reform in 1982. Gradual implementation of the reform creates an opportunity to investigate the effects of being graded on adult educational attainments and earnings for children in the cohorts born 1954–1974, using a difference-in-differences strategy. Accounting for municipal time trends and tracing out reform dynamics, there is some evidence that being graded increases girls’ years of schooling, but has no significant average effect on boys. Analysis of effects by family background suggests that receiving grades increases the probability of high school graduation for boys and girls with compulsory school educated parents. Sons of university graduates, however, earn less and are less likely to get a university degree if they were graded in elementary school.

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Paper provided by Research Institute of Industrial Economics in its series Working Paper Series with number 839.

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Length: 52 pages
Date of creation: 08 Jun 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:0839
Contact details of provider: Postal: Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Box 55665, SE-102 15 Stockholm, Sweden
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Fax: +46 8 665 4599
Web page: http://www.ifn.se/
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  1. Landsman, Wayne R. & Shackelford, Douglas A. & Yetman, Robert J., 2002. "The determinants of capital gains tax compliance: evidence from the RJR Nabisco leveraged buyout," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 47-74, April.
  2. Weisbach, Michael & Axelson, Ulf & Jenkinson, Tim & Stromberg, Per, 2008. "Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts: An Empirical Analysis," Working Papers 08-1, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
  3. Johannes Becker & Clemens Fuest, 2010. "Taxing Foreign Profits With International Mergers And Acquisitions," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 51(1), pages 171-186, 02.
  4. Sharon Katz, 2008. "Earnings Quality and Ownership Structure: The Role of Private Equity Sponsors," NBER Working Papers 14085, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Becker, Johannes & Fuest, Clemens, 2011. "Tax competition -- Greenfield investment versus mergers and acquisitions," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 476-486, September.
  6. Pehr-Johan Norbäck & Lars Persson & Jonas Vlachos, 2009. "Cross-border acquisitions and taxes: efficiency and tax revenues," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1473-1500, November.
  7. Becker, Johannes & Fuest, Clemens, 2011. "Source versus residence based taxation with international mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 28-40.
  8. Erik Devos & Palani-Rajan Kadapakkam & Srinivasan Krishnamurthy, 2009. "How Do Mergers Create Value? A Comparison of Taxes, Market Power, and Efficiency Improvements as Explanations for�Synergies," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(3), pages 1179-1211, March.
  9. Andreas Haufler & Christian Schulte, 2007. "Merger Policy and Tax Competition," Working Papers 035, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
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