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Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts: An Empirical Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Ulf Axelson
  • Tim Jenkinson
  • Per Strömberg
  • Michael S. Weisbach

Abstract

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the financial structure of large recent buyouts. We collect detailed information of the financings of 153 large buyouts (averaging over $1 billion in enterprise value). We document the manner in which these important transactions are financed. Buyout leverage is cross-sectionally unrelated to the leverage of matched public firms, and is largely driven by other factors than what explains leverage in public firms. In particular, the economy-wide cost of borrowing seems to drive leverage. Prices paid in buyouts are related to the prices observed for matched firms in the public market, but are also strongly affected by the economy-wide cost of borrowing. These results are consistent with a view in which the availability of financing impacts booms and busts in the private equity market.

Suggested Citation

  • Ulf Axelson & Tim Jenkinson & Per Strömberg & Michael S. Weisbach, 2008. "Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts: An Empirical Analysis," OFRC Working Papers Series 2008fe20, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:sbs:wpsefe:2008fe20
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Steven N. Kaplan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1991. "The Evolution of Buyout Pricing and Financial Structure," NBER Working Papers 3695, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Ulf Axelson, 2007. "Security Design with Investor Private Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(6), pages 2587-2632, December.
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    6. Axelson, Ulf & Strömberg, Per Johan & Weisbach, Michael, 2007. "Why are Buyouts Leveraged? The Financial Structure of Private Equity Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 6133, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Gertner, Robert & Scharfstein, David, 1991. " A Theory of Workouts and the Effects of Reorganization Law," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1189-1222, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sjögren, Anna, 2010. "Graded Children – Evidence of Longrun Consequences of School Grades from a Nationwide Reform," Working Paper Series 839, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    2. Ulf Axelson & Per Strömberg & Michael S. Weisbach, 2009. "Why Are Buyouts Levered? The Financial Structure of Private Equity Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(4), pages 1549-1582, August.
    3. Robin Greenwood & Samuel G. Hanson, 2011. "Issuer Quality and the Credit Cycle," NBER Working Papers 17197, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Shai Bernstein & Josh Lerner & Morten Sørensen & Per Strömberg, 2010. "Private Equity and Industry Performance," Harvard Business School Working Papers 10-045, Harvard Business School.
    5. Gabriel Jiménez & Steven Ongena & José‐Luis Peydró & Jesús Saurina, 2014. "Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy: What Do Twenty‐Three Million Bank Loans Say About the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk‐Taking?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82(2), pages 463-505, March.
    6. Robin Greenwood & Samuel G. Hanson, 2010. "Issuer Quality and Corporate Bond Returns," Harvard Business School Working Papers 11-065, Harvard Business School.
    7. Eileen Appelbaum & Rosemary Batt, 2012. "A Primer on Private Equity at Work: Management, Employment, and Sustainability," CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2012-05, Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR).
    8. Steven N. Kaplan & Per Stromberg, 2009. "Leveraged Buyouts and Private Equity," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 121-146, Winter.
    9. Phillip Leslie & Paul Oyer, 2008. "Managerial Incentives and Value Creation: Evidence from Private Equity," NBER Working Papers 14331, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Rosemary Batt & Eileen Appelbaum, 2013. "The Impact of Financialization on Management and Employment Outcomes," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 13-191, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    11. Alexander Peter Groh & Oliver Gottschalg, 2008. "The Opportunity Cost of Capital of US Buyouts," NBER Working Papers 14148, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars & Tåg, Joacim, 2010. "Does the Debt Tax Shield Distort Ownership Efficiency?," Working Paper Series 841, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 22 Sep 2017.

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    Keywords

    Private equity; capital structure; buyouts;

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