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Leveraged Buyouts and Private Equity

  • Steven N. Kaplan
  • Per Strömberg

We describe and present time series evidence on the leveraged buyout / private equity industry, both firms and transactions. We discuss the existing empirical evidence on the economics of the firms and transactions. We consider similarities and differences between the recent private equity wave and the wave of the 1980s. Finally, we speculate on what the evidence implies for the future of private equity.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14207.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 14207.

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Date of creation: Jul 2008
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Publication status: published as Steven N. Kaplan & Per Stromberg, 2009. "Leveraged Buyouts and Private Equity," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 121-46, Winter.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14207
Note: CF
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  2. Richard Harris & Donald S. Siegel & Mike Wright, 2005. "Assessing the Impact of Management Buyouts on Economic Efficiency: Plant-Level Evidence from the United Kingdom," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 148-153, February.
  3. Steven Davis & John Haltiwanger & Ron Jarmin & Josh Lerner & Javier Miranda, 2008. "Private Equity and Employment," Working Papers 08-07r, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau, revised Oct 2011.
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  5. Ulf Axelson & Tim Jenkinson, 2008. "Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts: An Empirical Analysis," Economics Series Working Papers 2008fe20, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  6. Jeremy C. Stein, 2005. "Why are most Funds Open-end? Competition and the Limits of Arbitrage," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 120(1), pages 247-272, January.
  7. Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2000. "The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 2219-2257, October.
  8. Josh Lerner & Antoinette Schoar & Wan Wong, 2005. "Smart Institutions, Foolish Choices? The Limited Partner Performance Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 11136, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Josh Lerner & Morten Sørensen & Per Strömberg, 2008. "Private Equity and Long-Run Investment: The Case of Innovation," NBER Working Papers 14623, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
  11. Acharya, Viral V & Hahn, Moritz & Kehoe, Conor, 2009. "Corporate Governance and Value Creation: Evidence from Private Equity," CEPR Discussion Papers 7242, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Leonce Bargeron & Frederik Schlingemann & Rene M. Stulz & Chad Zutter, 2007. "Why Do Private Acquirers Pay So Little Compared to Public Acquirers?," NBER Working Papers 13061, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Kaplan, Steven, 1989. "The effects of management buyouts on operating performance and value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 217-254.
  14. Viral V. Acharya & Julian Franks & Henri Servaes, 2007. "Private Equity: Boom and Bust?," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 19(4), pages 44-53.
  15. Holthausen, Robert W. & Larcker, David F., 1996. "The financial performance of reverse leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 293-332, November.
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  17. Kevin Amess & Mike Wright, 2007. "The Wage and Employment Effects of Leveraged Buyouts in the UK," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 179-195.
  18. Steven N. Kaplan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1991. "The Evolution of Buyout Pricing and Financial Structure," NBER Working Papers 3695, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Gompers, Paul & Lerner, Josh, 1996. "The Use of Covenants: An Empirical Analysis of Venture Partnership Agreements," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(2), pages 463-98, October.
  20. Alexander Ljungqvist & Matthew Richardson & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2008. "The Investment Behavior of Buyout Funds: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 14180, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Gompers, Paul & Lerner, Josh, 2000. "Money chasing deals? The impact of fund inflows on private equity valuation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 281-325, February.
  22. Baker, Malcolm & Greenwood, Robin & Wurgler, Jeffrey, 2003. "The maturity of debt issues and predictable variation in bond returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 261-291, November.
  23. Lichtenberg, Frank R. & Siegel, Donald, 1990. "The effects of leveraged buyouts on productivity and related aspects of firm behavior," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 165-194, September.
  24. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  25. Vishny, Robert W. & Bhagat, Sanjai & Shleifer, Andrei, 1990. "Hostile Takeovers in the 1980s: The Return to Corporate Specialization," Scholarly Articles 8705861, Harvard University Department of Economics.
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  27. Marais, Laurentius & Schipper, Katherine & Smith, Abbie, 1989. "Wealth effects of going private for senior securities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 155-191, June.
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  29. Victoria Ivashina & Anna Kovner, 2011. "The Private Equity Advantage: Leveraged Buyout Firms and Relationship Banking," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(7), pages 2462-2498.
  30. Kaplan, Steven N., 1991. "The staying power of leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 287-313, October.
  31. Baker, George P, 1992. " Beatrice: A Study in the Creation and Destruction of Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 1081-119, July.
  32. Cem Demiroglu & Christopher M. James, 2008. "Lender control and the role of private equity group reputation in buyout financing," Proceedings 1081, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  33. Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
  34. Asquith, Paul, 1948- & Wizman, Thierry A., 1990. "Event risk, covenants, and bondholder returns in leveraged buyouts," Working papers WP 3173-90., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  35. Jensen, M.C. & Murphy, K.J., 1988. "Performance Pay And Top Management Incentives," Papers 88-04, Rochester, Business - Managerial Economics Research Center.
  36. Asquith, Paul & Wizman, Thierry A., 1990. "Event risk, covenants, and bondholder returns in leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 195-213, September.
  37. John R. Graham, 2003. "Taxes and Corporate Finance: A Review," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(4), pages 1075-1129.
  38. Ofek, Eli, 1994. " Efficiency Gains in Unsuccessful Management Buyouts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(2), pages 637-54, June.
  39. Kaplan, Steven N & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. "The Evolution of Buyout Pricing and Financial Structure in the 1980s," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(2), pages 313-57, May.
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