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Leveraged Buyouts and Private Equity

  • Steven N. Kaplan
  • Per Strömberg

We describe and present time series evidence on the leveraged buyout / private equity industry, both firms and transactions. We discuss the existing empirical evidence on the economics of the firms and transactions. We consider similarities and differences between the recent private equity wave and the wave of the 1980s. Finally, we speculate on what the evidence implies for the future of private equity.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14207.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 14207.

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Date of creation: Jul 2008
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Publication status: published as Steven N. Kaplan & Per Stromberg, 2009. "Leveraged Buyouts and Private Equity," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 121-46, Winter.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14207
Note: CF
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  1. Ofek, Eli, 1994. " Efficiency Gains in Unsuccessful Management Buyouts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(2), pages 637-54, June.
  2. Bargeron, Leonce L. & Schlingemann, Frederik P. & Stulz, René M. & Zutter, Chad J., 2008. "Why do private acquirers pay so little compared to public acquirers?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 375-390, September.
  3. Lichtenberg, Frank R. & Siegel, Donald, 1990. "The effects of leveraged buyouts on productivity and related aspects of firm behavior," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 165-194, September.
  4. Asquith, Paul, 1948- & Wizman, Thierry A., 1990. "Event risk, covenants, and bondholder returns in leveraged buyouts," Working papers WP 3173-90., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  5. Kevin Amess & Mike Wright, 2012. "Leveraged buyouts, private equity and jobs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 419-430, May.
  6. Steven Kaplan, 1989. "Management Buyouts: Evidence on Taxes as a Source of Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 611-632, 07.
  7. Cumming, Douglas & Siegel, Donald S. & Wright, Mike, 2007. "Private equity, leveraged buyouts and governance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 439-460, September.
  8. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  9. Bengt Holmstrom & Steven N. Kaplan, 2003. "The State Of U.S. Corporate Governance: What'S Right And What'S Wrong?," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 15(3), pages 8-20.
  10. Cem Demiroglu & Christopher M. James, 2008. "Lender control and the role of private equity group reputation in buyout financing," Proceedings 1081, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  11. Josh Lerner & Morten Sørensen & Per Strömberg, 2008. "Private Equity and Long-Run Investment: The Case of Innovation," NBER Working Papers 14623, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Richard Harris & Donald S. Siegel & Mike Wright, 2003. "Assessing the Impact of Management Buyouts on Economic Efficiency: Plant-Level Evidence from the United Kingdom," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0304, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
  13. Baker, Malcolm & Greenwood, Robin & Wurgler, Jeffrey, 2003. "The maturity of debt issues and predictable variation in bond returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 261-291, November.
  14. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Josh Lerner & Javier Miranda, 2011. "Private Equity and Employment," NBER Working Papers 17399, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Vishny, Robert W. & Bhagat, Sanjai & Shleifer, Andrei, 1990. "Hostile Takeovers in the 1980s: The Return to Corporate Specialization," Scholarly Articles 8705861, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  16. Holthausen, Robert W. & Larcker, David F., 1996. "The financial performance of reverse leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 293-332, November.
  17. Alexander Ljungqvist & Matthew Richardson & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2008. "The Investment Behavior of Buyout Funds: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 14180, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Josh Lerner & Antoinette Schoar & Wan Wong, 2005. "Smart Institutions, Foolish Choices? The Limited Partner Performance Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 11136, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Jeremy C. Stein, 2005. "Why are most Funds Open-end? Competition and the Limits of Arbitrage," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 120(1), pages 247-272, January.
  20. Yermack, David, 1996. "Higher market valuation of companies with a small board of directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 185-211, February.
  21. Baker, George P, 1992. " Beatrice: A Study in the Creation and Destruction of Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 1081-119, July.
  22. Kevin Amess & Mike Wright, 2007. "The Wage and Employment Effects of Leveraged Buyouts in the UK," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 179-195.
  23. John R. Graham, 2003. "Taxes and Corporate Finance: A Review," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(4), pages 1075-1129.
  24. Steven N. Kaplan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1991. "The Evolution of Buyout Pricing and Financial Structure," NBER Working Papers 3695, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Kaplan, Steven N & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. "The Evolution of Buyout Pricing and Financial Structure in the 1980s," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(2), pages 313-57, May.
  26. Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2000. "The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 2219-2257, October.
  27. Steven N. Kaplan, 1991. "The Staying Power of Leveraged Buyouts," NBER Working Papers 3653, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Jensen, Michael C & Murphy, Kevin J, 1990. "Performance Pay and Top-Management Incentives," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 225-64, April.
  29. Ulf Axelson & Tim Jenkinson, 2008. "Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts: An Empirical Analysis," Economics Series Working Papers 2008fe20, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  30. Victoria Ivashina & Anna Kovner, 2011. "The Private Equity Advantage: Leveraged Buyout Firms and Relationship Banking," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(7), pages 2462-2498.
  31. Gompers, Paul & Lerner, Josh, 2000. "Money chasing deals? The impact of fund inflows on private equity valuation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 281-325, February.
  32. Viral V. Acharya & Julian Franks & Henri Servaes, 2007. "Private Equity: Boom and Bust?," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 19(4), pages 44-53.
  33. Marais, Laurentius & Schipper, Katherine & Smith, Abbie, 1989. "Wealth effects of going private for senior securities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 155-191, June.
  34. Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
  35. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
  36. Acharya, Viral V & Hahn, Moritz & Kehoe, Conor, 2009. "Corporate Governance and Value Creation: Evidence from Private Equity," CEPR Discussion Papers 7242, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  37. Asquith, Paul & Wizman, Thierry A., 1990. "Event risk, covenants, and bondholder returns in leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 195-213, September.
  38. Kaplan, Steven, 1989. "The effects of management buyouts on operating performance and value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 217-254.
  39. Gompers, Paul & Lerner, Josh, 1996. "The Use of Covenants: An Empirical Analysis of Venture Partnership Agreements," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(2), pages 463-98, October.
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