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The Effects of Taxation on the Merger Decision

In: Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences

Author

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  • Alan J. Auerbach
  • David Reishus

Abstract

This paper presents estimates of the tax benefits generated by a sample of U.S. mergers and acquisitions involving two public corporations over the period 1968-83 and estimates a "marriage model" based on differences between these mergers and another sample of "pseudomergers" that did not occur to determine the impact of these tax benefits on the probability of two firms combining. Our findings reject the hypothesis that leverage played a large role in fostering these transactions, and that the tax losses and credits of acquired firms likewise exerted no impact on merger activity. Though the use of such benefits by acquiring firms to shield profits of other firms did increase the level of activity, the impact was quite small. On the whole, our results suggest that the changes in tax provisions with respect to mergers introduced by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 will have a small impact on U.S. mergers and acquisitions.
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Suggested Citation

  • Alan J. Auerbach & David Reishus, 1988. "The Effects of Taxation on the Merger Decision," NBER Chapters,in: Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences, pages 157-190 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:2056
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bradford, David F., 1981. "The incidence and allocation effects of a tax on corporate distributions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-22, February.
    2. Roger H. Gordon & James R. Hines, Jr. & Lawrence H. Summers, 1987. "Notes on the Tax Treatment of Structures," NBER Chapters,in: The Effects of Taxation on Capital Accumulation, pages 223-258 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Andrei Shleifer & Lawrence H. Summers, 1988. "Breach of Trust in Hostile Takeovers," NBER Chapters,in: Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences, pages 33-68 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Alan J. Auerbach & James R. Hines, Jr., 1987. "Anticipated Tax Changes and the Timing of Investment," NBER Chapters,in: The Effects of Taxation on Capital Accumulation, pages 163-200 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Alan J. Auerbach & James M. Poterba, 1987. "Tax Loss Carryforwards and Corporate Tax Incentives," NBER Chapters,in: The Effects of Taxation on Capital Accumulation, pages 305-342 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Julian R. Franks & Robert S. Harris & Cohn Mayer, 1988. "Means of Payment in Takeovers: Results for the United Kingdom and the United States," NBER Chapters,in: Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences, pages 221-264 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Mervyn A. King, 1974. "Taxation and the Cost of Capital," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(1), pages 21-35.
    8. Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-275, May.
    9. Alan J. Auerbach, 1979. "Wealth Maximization and the Cost of Capital," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 93(3), pages 433-446.
    10. Palepu, Krishna G., 1986. "Predicting takeover targets : A methodological and empirical analysis," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-35, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Auerbach, Alan J., 2002. "Taxation and corporate financial policy," Handbook of Public Economics,in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 19, pages 1251-1292 Elsevier.
    2. Desai, Mihir A. & Hines Jr., James R., 2008. "Market reactions to export subsidies," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 459-474, March.
    3. Rosanne Altshuler & Alan J. Auerbach, 1990. "The Significance of Tax Law Asymmetries: An Empirical Investigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(1), pages 61-86.
    4. Hines Jr., James R., 2010. "Income misattribution under formula apportionment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 108-120, January.
    5. Ghosh, Aloke & Jain, Prem C., 2000. "Financial leverage changes associated with corporate mergers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 377-402, December.
    6. Bronwyn H. Hall, 1988. "The Effect of Takeover Activity on Corporate Research and Development," NBER Chapters,in: Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences, pages 69-100 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Hanlon, Michelle & Heitzman, Shane, 2010. "A review of tax research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 127-178, December.
    8. Mihir A. Desai & William M. Gentry, 2004. "The Character and Determinants of Corporate Capital Gains," NBER Chapters,in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 18, pages 1-36 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. B. Douglas Bernheim, 1989. "Incentive Effects of the Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax," NBER Chapters,in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 3, pages 69-96 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Burch, Timothy R. & Nanda, Vikram & Silveri, Sabatino, 2012. "Taking stock or cashing in? Shareholder style preferences, premiums and the method of payment," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 558-582.
    11. James R. Hines Jr., 1998. "Investment Ramifications of Distortionary Tax Subsidies," NBER Working Papers 6615, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Rauh, Joshua D., 2006. "Own company stock in defined contribution pension plans: A takeover defense?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 379-410, August.
    13. Franks, Julian R & Harris, Robert & Mayer, Colin, 1987. "Means of Payment in Takeovers: Results for the UK and US," CEPR Discussion Papers 200, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Alan J. Auerbach, 1989. "Tax policy and corporate borrowing," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 33, pages 136-172.
    15. Roger H. Gordon & Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason, 1990. "Effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on Corporate Financial Policy and Organizational Form," NBER Working Papers 3222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. repec:bin:bpeajo:v:21:y:1990:i:1990-3:p:1-84 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Vishny, Robert W. & Bhagat, Sanjai & Shleifer, Andrei, 1990. "Hostile Takeovers in the 1980s: The Return to Corporate Specialization," Scholarly Articles 8705861, Harvard University Department of Economics.

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