Short-run and long-run relationships in the consumption of alcohol in the Scandinavian countries
Traditionally, the Scandinavian countries have been characterized as spirits and beer consuming countries and a century ago the historical background was decades of relatively heavy drinking behaviour with spirit as the preferred beverage. Therefore, it might be expected that alcohol consumption – especially in the last part of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century – would behave in a counter-cyclical manner, i.e. heavy drinking during severe recessions characterized by harsh economic conditions. Using long-run time series data for alcohol consumption levels in the Scandinavian countries the question of a counter-cyclical or pro-cyclical behaviour is addressed – with the business cycle measured as the GDP – and the empirical findings are that generally, alcohol consumption behaves in a pro-cyclical manner in the short run, and with no long-run relationship concerning real income.
|Date of creation:||10 Dec 2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: The Aarhus School of Business, Prismet, Silkeborgvej 2, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark|
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- Bentzen, J. & Smith, V. & Nannerup, N., 1997. "Alcohol Consumption and Drunken Driving in the Scandinavian Countries," Papers 97-1, Aarhus School of Business - Department of Economics.
- Enders, Walter & Granger, C. W. J., 1998.
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- Walter Enders, 2001. "Improved critical values for the Enders-Granger unit-root test," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 257-261.
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