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Dépenses publiques d’éducation et inégalités Une perspective de cycle de vie

Author

Listed:
  • Guillaume Allegre

    (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)

  • Thomas Mélonio

    (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po, AFD - Agence française de développement)

  • Xavier Timbeau

    (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)

Abstract

Les dépenses publiques d'éducation contribuent-elles à réduire les inégalités ? La réponse à cette question, simple en apparence, dépend en réalité de choix normatifs et pose de façon parallèle des problèmes de mesure. Selon l'angle d'analyse adopté, on peut conclure d'une même dépense qu'elle est égalitaire, qu'elle augmente les inégalités de revenus ou encore qu'elle les réduit. Dans une partie méthodologique, nous montrons que le jugement sur le caractère équitable de la dépense publique d'éducation dépend en grande partie de la nature du rendement, social ou privé qu'elle génère. Nous cherchons ensuite à mesurer l'impact redistributif des dépenses éducatives et de leur financement pour une promotion de jeunes actifs ayant achevé leur formation initiale en 2001 et en 2002. Nous adoptons une perspective de cycle de vie qui consiste à estimer pour chaque individu d'une part, l'ensemble des dépenses publiques d'éducation dont il a bénéficié, et d'autre part, l'imposition nécessaire pour financer cette dépense, sous l'hypothèse d'une imposition proportionnelle aux revenus des individus tout au long de leur carrière professionnelle. Afin d'isoler les questions d'inégalité et de redistribution intra-générationnelles, nous faisons l'hypothèse que la promotion d'étudiants sous revue finance ses propres dépenses d'éducation. Nous concluons que les dépenses et le financement du système d'éducation au-delà de l'âge de l'enseignement obligatoire (16 ans) aggravent légèrement les inégalités liées à l'origine sociale. Toutefois, ces transferts sont un enjeu marginal par rapport à celui des différences de parcours et réussite scolaires et professionnels en fonction du milieu social d'origine. Nous montrons que ces différences de parcours et de réussite génèrent des inégalités 100 fois supérieures à celles générées par la dépense et le financement du système d'enseignement non-obligatoire. Nous montrons également qu'analysé dans une perspective de cycle de vie, ce système est progressif dans la mesure où les individus à hauts revenus sont des contributeurs nets alors que ceux à bas revenus sont des bénéficiaires nets. Le financement privé de l'enseignement supérieur n'est en fait susceptible de ne résoudre qu'une iniquité horizontale entre les individus qui ont fait des études longues et ceux qui, à revenus égaux, ont fait des études courtes. Par rapport au financement public, le financement privé serait défavorable à ceux faisant les études les plus longues et à ceux faisant le moins d'efforts, mais également à ceux et celles choisissant un secteur d'activité où le rendement monétaire de l'éducation est plus faible et aussi à ceux et celles qui sont discriminé(e)s sur le marché du travail.

Suggested Citation

  • Guillaume Allegre & Thomas Mélonio & Xavier Timbeau, 2010. "Dépenses publiques d’éducation et inégalités Une perspective de cycle de vie," Working Papers hal-03389330, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03389330
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal-sciencespo.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03389330
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Xavier Timbeau, 2011. "Solidarité intergénérationnelle et dette publique," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(1), pages 191-212.
    2. Balazs Egert, 2013. "The Efficiency and Equity of the Tax and Transfer System in France," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1047, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    3. Xavier Timbeau & OFCE Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques, 2014. "From austerity to stagnation how to avoid the deflation trap: The independant annual growth survey 2014," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/c5gs2rgi93a, Sciences Po.
    4. Xavier Timbeau & Ofce Observatoire Français Des Conjonctures Économiques, 2014. "From austerity to stagnation how to avoid the deflation trap," Post-Print hal-03603164, HAL.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financement de l’éducation; Enseignement supérieur; Inégalités; Redistribution; Cycle de vie.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • H40 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - General

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