Geographical Indications: The Economics of Claw-Back
Geographical Indications (GIs) for products (Basmati rice, Champagne sparkling wine, Antigua coffee, etc.) were regulated at the international level in 1995 (WTO TRIPS Agreement, Part II, Section 3). This paper proposes a model on the welfare effects of the socalled “claw-back” of GIs; i.e. the protection in a country (Home) of a GI of another country (Foreign), when the said GI had previously acquired generic status at Home (cf.: protection of Feta in the EU or of Champagne in Chile). The setting includes two countries (Home and Foreign); three varieties (Foreign GI-original goods, Home GI-variety goods and generics) and a continuum of heterogeneous consumers. Two regimes are analyzed: protection / no protection; in two scenarios for Foreign firms: perfect / oligopolistic competition. Only the equilibrium at Home is analyzed. Although a loss in global welfare is always expected when fewer varieties are available in a market, results suggest that industrialized Home countries, with sophisticated consumers and higher relative costs tend to lose less from protecting Foreign GIs than developing Home countries, where the opposite is true. With oligopolistic competition, GI firms become from differentiated from their closest competitor after protection (now generics), further stressing the competitive distortion; consumers with a low willingness to pay for origin and a high degree of valuation for the GI-variety are the biggest losers. Regarding firms, however, contrary to the conventional wisdom, oligopolistic competition by Foreign firms leads to less stringent conditions for Home GI-varieties to compete, and does not affect generics. In effect, if after protection Home GI-varieties can successfully differentiate themselves from Foreign GI-original goods without the (unlawful) use of the GI label (either through the development of their own GI or through proper branding) and stay competitive, the scenario of oligopolistic competition from Foreign firms is more favorable to their development than the scenario of perfect competition.
|Date of creation:||16 May 2010|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: P.O. Box 36, 1211 Geneva 21|
Phone: ++41 22 731 17 30
Fax: ++41 22 738 43 06
Web page: http://www.graduateinstitute.ch/economics
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Langinier Corinne & Babcock Bruce A., 2008.
"Agricultural Production Clubs: Viability and Welfare Implications,"
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization,
De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-31, December.
- Corinne Langinier & Bruce A. Babcock, 2006. "Agricultural Production Clubs: Viability and Welfare Implications," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 06-wp431, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
- Langinier, Corinne & Babcock, Bruce A., 2006. "Agricultural Production Clubs: Viability and Welfare Implications," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12670, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Gergaud, Olivier & Ginsburgh, Victor, 2010. "Natural Endowments, Production Technologies and the Quality of Wines in Bordeaux. Does Terroir Matter?," Journal of Wine Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(01), pages 3-21, March.
- Olivier Gergaud & Victor Ginsburgh, 2008. "Natural Endowments, Production Technologies and the Quality of Wines in Bordeaux. Does Terroir Matter?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(529), pages 142-157, 06.
- GERGAUD, Oliver & GINSBURGH, Victor, "undated". "Natural endowments, production technologies and the quality of wines in Bordeaux. Does terroir matter?," CORE Discussion Papers RP 2025, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Olivier Gergaud & Victor Ginsburgh, 2008. "Natural endowments, production technologies and the quality of wines in Bordeaux. Does terroir matter?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/99266, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Rouviere, Elodie & Soubeyran, Raphael, 2008. "Collective Reputation, Entry and Minimum Safety Standard," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44465, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Jason A. Winfree & Jill J. McCluskey, 2005. "Collective Reputation and Quality," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(1), pages 206-213.
- Winfree, Jason A. & McCluskey, Jill J., 2003. "Collective Reputation And Quality," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 21927, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- John Crespi & Stéphan Marette, 2002. "Generic Advertising and Product Differentiation," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 691-701.
- Daniel Pick, 2008. "Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(3), pages 794-812.
- Moschini, GianCarlo & Menapace, Luisa & Pick, Daniel, 2008. "Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12858, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- GianCarlo Moschini & Luisa Menapace & Daniel Pick, 2008. "Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 08-wp458, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
- Giovannucci, Daniele & Josling, Timothy & Kerr, William & O'Connor, Bernard & Yeung, May T., 2009. "Guide to Geographical Indications: Linking Products and Their Origins (Summary)," MPRA Paper 27955, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- G¸nter Schamel & Kym Anderson, 2003. "Wine Quality and Varietal, Regional and Winery Reputations: Hedonic Prices for Australia and New Zealand," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 79(246), pages 357-369, 09.
- Landes, William M & Posner, Richard A, 1987. "Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 265-309, October.
- Levin Jonathan, 2009. "The Dynamics of Collective Reputation," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-25, August.
- Jonathan Levin, 2009. "The Dynamics of Collective Reputation," Discussion Papers 08-024, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Pierre Fleckinger, 2007. "Collective Reputation and Market Structure: Regulating the Quality vs Quantity Trade-of," Working Papers hal-00243080, HAL.
- Langinier, Corinne & Babcock, Bruce A., 2005. "Producer's choice of certification," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19510, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Zago, Angelo M. & Pick, Daniel H., 2004. "Labeling Policies in Food Markets: Private Incentives, Public Intervention, and Welfare Effects," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 29(01), April. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gii:giihei:heidwp11-2010. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dorina Dobre)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.