The Economics of Geographical Indications: GIs Modelled As Club Assets
Geographical Indications (GIs) for products (Basmati rice, Champagne sparkling wine, Antigua coffee, etc.) were regulated at the international level in 1995 (WTO TRIPS Agreement, Part II, Section 3). This paper sets a general framework of analysis for GI-labeled goods, based on the modeling of a GI as a club asset (partial excludability and no rivalry in benefits to the firms that lawfully label their products with the GI). A model of club reputation is developed which includes Shapiro (1982) and Winfree & McCluskey (2005) as special cases. Reputation is assumed to be traceable through the GI label; quality is endogenously determined at the firm level, with reputation as the state variable. In contrast with previous research, it is shown that the TRIPS legal construct around GIs is potentially compatible with an equilibrium involving a self-fulfilling level of quality (and reputation) that is above the minimum, under the condition that the GI club has a reduced membership of firms. However, the establishment of a minimum level of quality is still the first best policy to improve firm profits. It is also shown that under bottom-up firm-driven processes of club formation (maximization of firm profits), firm levels of quality and profits are higher, and levels of club membership are lower, than under top-down State-driven processes (maximization of club profits). When quality is taken as exogenous, the model evolves into a static partial equilibrium framework, where the GI is subject to potential dilution phenomena due to membership crowding and oversupply. GI-related expenses, output, membership, and club finance are all determined simultaneously. It is shown that under partial rivalry in benefits, both output and membership are reduced, in an equilibrium that approaches the cartel equilibrium. State subsidization is shown to lead to potential inefficiencies stemming from price and incentive distortions. The geographical confinement of output is shown to impact factor prices and quantities. Finally, issues concerning potential monopsonistic concerns and the replication of GIs are briefly sketched.
|Date of creation:||16 Jun 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: P.O. Box 36, 1211 Geneva 21|
Phone: ++41 22 731 17 30
Fax: ++41 22 738 43 06
Web page: http://www.graduateinstitute.ch/economics
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- GERGAUD, Oliver & GINSBURGH, Victor, .
"Natural endowments, production technologies and the quality of wines in Bordeaux. Does terroir matter?,"
CORE Discussion Papers RP
2025, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Olivier Gergaud & Victor Ginsburgh, 2008. "Natural Endowments, Production Technologies and the Quality of Wines in Bordeaux. Does Terroir Matter?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(529), pages F142-F157, 06.
- Gergaud, Olivier & Ginsburgh, Victor, 2010. "Natural Endowments, Production Technologies and the Quality of Wines in Bordeaux. Does Terroir Matter?," Journal of Wine Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(01), pages 3-21, March.
- Olivier Gergaud & Victor Ginsburgh, 2008. "Natural endowments, production technologies and the quality of wines in Bordeaux. Does terroir matter?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/99266, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Zago, Angelo M. & Pick, Daniel H., 2004. "Labeling Policies in Food Markets: Private Incentives, Public Intervention, and Welfare Effects," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 29(01), April.
- Langinier, Corinne & Babcock, Bruce A., 2006.
"Agricultural Production Clubs: Viability and Welfare Implications,"
Staff General Research Papers Archive
12670, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Langinier Corinne & Babcock Bruce A., 2008. "Agricultural Production Clubs: Viability and Welfare Implications," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-31, December.
- Corinne Langinier & Bruce A. Babcock, 2006. "Agricultural Production Clubs: Viability and Welfare Implications," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 06-wp431, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
- G¸nter Schamel & Kym Anderson, 2003. "Wine Quality and Varietal, Regional and Winery Reputations: Hedonic Prices for Australia and New Zealand," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 79(246), pages 357-369, 09.
- John Crespi & Stéphan Marette, 2002. "Generic Advertising and Product Differentiation," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 691-701.
- Moschini, GianCarlo & Menapace, Luisa & Pick, Daniel, 2008.
"Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets,"
Staff General Research Papers Archive
12858, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Daniel Pick, 2008. "Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(3), pages 794-812.
- GianCarlo Moschini & Luisa Menapace & Daniel Pick, 2008. "Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 08-wp458, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
- Giovannucci, Daniele & Josling, Timothy & Kerr, William & O'Connor, Bernard & Yeung, May T., 2009. "Guide to Geographical Indications: Linking Products and Their Origins (Summary)," MPRA Paper 27955, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Landes, William M & Posner, Richard A, 1987. "Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 265-309, October.
- Pierre Fleckinger, 2007. "Collective Reputation and Market Structure: Regulating the Quality vs Quantity Trade-of," Working Papers hal-00243080, HAL.
- Langinier, Corinne & Babcock, Bruce A., 2005. "Producer's choice of certification," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19510, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Rouviere, Elodie & Soubeyran, Raphael, 2008. "Collective Reputation, Entry and Minimum Safety Standard," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44465, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Winfree, Jason A. & McCluskey, Jill J., 2003.
"Collective Reputation And Quality,"
2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada
21927, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Jonathan Levin, 2009.
"The Dynamics of Collective Reputation,"
08-024, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gii:giihei:heidwp10-2010. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dorina Dobre)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.