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A redefinition of economic regions in the U.S


  • Theodore M. Crone


Since the 1950s the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) has grouped the states into eight regions based primarily on cross-sectional similarities in their socioeconomic characteristics. This is the most frequently used grouping of states in the U.S. for economic analysis. Since several recent studies concentrate on similarities and differences in regional business cycles, this paper groups states into regions based not on a broad set of socioeconomic characteristics but on the similarities in their business cycles. The analysis makes use of a consistent set of coincident indexes estimated from a Stock and Watson-type model. We applied k-means cluster analysis to the cyclical components of these indexes to group the 48 contiguous states into eight regions with similar cycles. Having grouped the states into regions, we determine the relative strength of cohesion among the states in the various regions. Finally, we compare the regions defined in this paper with the BEA regions.

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  • Theodore M. Crone, 2004. "A redefinition of economic regions in the U.S," Working Papers 04-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedpwp:04-12

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. William N. Goetzmann & Susan M. Wachter, 1995. "Clustering Methods for Real Estate Portfolios," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 23(3), pages 271-310.
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    3. Gerald Carlino & Keith Sill, 2001. "Regional Income Fluctuations: Common Trends And Common Cycles," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(3), pages 446-456, August.
    4. Theodore M. Crone, 1994. "New indexes track the state of the states," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Jan, pages 19-31.
    5. Carlino Gerald & Defina Robert, 1995. "Regional Income Dynamics," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 88-106, January.
    6. Charles B. Garrison & Hui S. Chang, 1979. "The Effect of Monetary and Fiscal Policies on Regional Business Cycles," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 4(2), pages 167-180, December.
    7. Clark, Todd E, 1998. "Employment Fluctuations in U.S. Regions and Industries: The Roles of National, Region-Specific, and Industry-Specific Shocks," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 202-229, January.
    8. Robert E. Jensen, 1969. "A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Cluster Analysis," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 17(6), pages 1034-1057, December.
    9. Gerald Carlino & Robert Defina, 1998. "The Differential Regional Effects Of Monetary Policy," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 572-587, November.
    10. Michael A. Kouparitsas, 2001. "Is the United States an optimum currency area? an empirical analysis of regional business cycles," Working Paper Series WP-01-22, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    11. Christophe Croux & Mario Forni & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2001. "A Measure Of Comovement For Economic Variables: Theory And Empirics," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(2), pages 232-241, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rork, Jonathan C. & Wagner, Gary A., 2008. "Do regions matter in interjurisdictional competition? Evidence from state taxation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 116-118, November.

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    Regional economics;

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