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Clustering Methods for Real Estate Portfolios

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  • William N. Goetzmann
  • Susan M. Wachter

Abstract

A clustering algorithm is applied to effective rents for twenty-one metropolitan U.S. office markets, and to twenty-two metropolitan markets using vacancy data. It provides support for the conjecture that there exists a few major "families" of cities: including an oil and gas group and an industrial Northeast group. Unlike other clustering studies, we find strong evidence of bicoastal city associations among cities such as Boston and Los Angeles. We present a bootstrapping methodology for investigating the robustness of the clustering algorithm, and develop a means for testing the significance of city associations. While the analysis is limited to aggregate rent and vacancy data, the results provide a guideline for the further application of cluster analysis to other types of real estate and economic information. Copyright American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.

Suggested Citation

  • William N. Goetzmann & Susan M. Wachter, 1995. "Clustering Methods for Real Estate Portfolios," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 23(3), pages 271-310.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:23:y:1995:i:3:p:271-310
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    Cited by:

    1. Theodore M. Crone, 2003. "An alternative definition of economic regions in the U.S. based on similarities in state business cycles," Working Papers 03-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    2. Philip McCann & Stephen Lee, 2005. "The Implications for Regional Investment of Diversification Strategies in CommercialR eal Estate Portfolios," ERES eres2005_254, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
    3. Philip McCann & Stephen Lee, 2005. "The Implications for Regional Investment of Diversification Strategies in Commercial Real Estate Portfolios," ERSA conference papers ersa05p473, European Regional Science Association.
    4. Brett Day & Ian Bateman & Iain Lake, 2007. "Beyond implicit prices: recovering theoretically consistent and transferable values for noise avoidance from a hedonic property price model," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, pages 211-232.
    5. Kristin Wellner & Matthias Thomas, 2004. "Diversification Benefits from European Direct Real Estate Investment with a Special Focus on the German Market," ERES eres2004_231, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
    6. Darren Hayunga & R. Pace, 2010. "Spatial Statistics Applied to Commercial Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 103-125, August.
    7. Rena Sivitanidou, 1999. "Office Rent Processes: The Case of U.S. Metropolitan Markets," Working Paper 8664, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    8. Mark Gallagher & Asieh Mansour, 2000. "An Analysis of Hotel Real Estate Market Dynamics," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 19(2), pages 133-164.
    9. Peter Byrne, 2005. "A Geography of the UK Commercial Property Market," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2005-17, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    10. Theodore M. Crone, 1999. "Using state indexes to define economic regions in the U.S," Working Papers 99-19, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    11. Janet K. Tandy & Leon Shilton, 1999. "Risk Assessment Steeplechase: Hurdles to Becoming a Target Market," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 17(2), pages 127-150.
    12. Brown, Stephen J. & Goetzmann, William N., 1997. "Mutual fund styles," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, pages 373-399.
    13. Jacques Gordon & Paige MosbaughTodd Canter & Todd Canter, 1996. "Integrating Regional Economic Indicators with the Real Estate Cycle," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 12(3), pages 469-501.
    14. Kahn, Charles M & Roberds, William, 1998. "Payment System Settlement and Bank Incentives," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, pages 845-870.
    15. Theodore M. Crone, 2004. "A redefinition of economic regions in the U.S," Working Papers 04-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    16. William Goetzmann & Matthew Spiegel & Susan Wachter, 1999. "Do Cities and Suburbs Cluster?," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm115, Yale School of Management, revised 01 May 1999.
    17. Yongheng Deng & Jeffrey D. Fisher & Anthony B. Sanders & Brent Smith, 2003. "Estimation of NOI Growth, Volatility and Clustering by MSA," Working Paper 8613, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.

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    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions

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