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Declining required reserves, funds rate volatility, and open market operations

  • Selva Demiralp & Dennis Farley

The standard view of the monetary transmission mechanism rests on the central bank's ability to manipulate the overnight interest rate by controlling the reserve supply. In the 1990s, there was a significant decline in the level of reserve balances in the U.S. accompanied at first by an increase in the funds rate volatility. However, following this initial rise, volatility declined. In this paper, we find evidence of a structural break in volatility. We then estimate a tobit model of the major types of temporary open market operations and conclude that there have been changes in the Desk's reaction function that played a major role in controlling volatility.

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Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2003-27.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2003-27
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  1. Carpenter, Seth & Demiralp, Selva, 2006. "The Liquidity Effect in the Federal Funds Market: Evidence from Daily Open Market Operations," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(4), pages 901-920, June.
  2. Selva Demiralp & Brian Preslopsky & William Whitesell, 2004. "Overnight interbank loan markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-29, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Bartolini, Leonardo & Bertola, Giuseppe & Prati, Alessandro, 2002. "Day-to-Day Monetary Policy and the Volatility of the Federal Funds Interest Rate," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 137-59, February.
  4. Oscar Jorda & Selva Demiralp & Holly Liu & Jeffrey Williams, 2003. "The Announcement Effect: Evidence from Open Market Desk Data," Working Papers 14, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  5. Gordon Sellon, Jr. & Stuart E. Weiner, 1997. "Monetary policy without reserve requirements : case studies and options for the United States," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 5-30.
  6. Ken B. Cyree & Mark D. Griffiths & Drew B. Winters, 2003. "On the pervasive effects of Federal Reserve settlement regulations," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 27-46.
  7. Gordon H. Sellon, Jr. & Stuart E. Weiner, 1996. "Monetary policy without reserve requirements: analytical issues," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 5-24.
  8. Hamilton, James D, 1996. "The Daily Market for Federal Funds," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 26-56, February.
  9. Furfine, Craig H., 2000. "Interbank payments and the daily federal funds rate," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 535-553, October.
  10. James A. Clouse & Douglas W. Elmendorf, 1997. "Declining required reserves and the volatility of the federal funds rate," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-30, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Selva Demiralp & Oscar Jorda, . "The Pavlovian Response of Term Rates to Fed Announcements," Department of Economics 99-06, California Davis - Department of Economics.
  12. Feinman, Joshua N, 1993. "Estimating the Open Market Desk's Daily Reaction Function," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(2), pages 231-47, May.
  13. Griffiths, Mark D. & Winters, Drew B., 1995. "Day-of-the-week effects in federal funds rates: Further empirical findings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 1265-1284, October.
  14. Spindt, Paul A. & Hoffmeister, J. Ronald, 1988. "The Micromechanics of the Federal Funds Market: Implications for Day-of-the-Week Effects in Funds Rate Variability," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(04), pages 401-416, December.
  15. Cheryl L. Edwards, 1997. "Open market operations in the 1990s," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Nov, pages 859-874.
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