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EMU and Portfolio Diversification Opportunities


  • Kpate ADJAOUTÉ,

    (Morgan Stanley Capital International, Geneva)

  • Jean-Pierre DANTHINE

    (University of Lausanne, CEPR and FAME)


This paper studies the impact of EMU on portfolio diversification opportunities. We find a significant increase in the correlation between stock returns, whether they are computed on the basis of market or sector indices. This is true for two definitions of the pre-convergence and convergence periods. Diversification opportunities within the Euro-area have thus been reduced. The culprit appears to be less the disappearance of currency risk than the convergence of economic structures and/or the homogenisation of economic shocks (across the Euro-15 member states). This evolution should mark the end of pure country allocation strategies within Europe. If these are the alternatives, the increased conformity of stock returns implies that international diversification does not pay: the cost of the home bias within Euroland has been lowered (in some cases to zero). Diversification across both countries and sectors, however, remains the much superior investment strategy, and, in light of this option, the cost of the home bias continues to be significant.

Suggested Citation

  • Kpate ADJAOUTÉ, & Jean-Pierre DANTHINE, 2000. "EMU and Portfolio Diversification Opportunities," FAME Research Paper Series rp31, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
  • Handle: RePEc:fam:rpseri:rp31

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lewis, Karen K., 1995. "Puzzles in international financial markets," Handbook of International Economics,in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 37, pages 1913-1971 Elsevier.
    2. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    3. Gikas A. Hardouvelis & Dimitrios Malliaropulos & Richard Priestley, 2006. "EMU and European Stock Market Integration," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(1), pages 365-392, January.
    4. Harvey, Campbell R, 1991. " The World Price of Covariance Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 111-157, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Haselmann, Rainer & Helmut, Herwartz, 2005. "The Introduction of the Euro and its Effects on Investment Decisions," Economics Working Papers 2005-15, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
    2. Apergis, Nicholas & Christou, Christina & Miller, Stephen M., 2014. "Country and industry convergence of equity markets: International evidence from club convergence and clustering," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 36-58.
    3. Giofré, Maela/M., 2008. "EMU Effects on Stock Markets: From Home Bias to Euro Bias," MPRA Paper 13926, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Kaltenhaeuser, Bernd, 2003. "Country and sector-specific spillover effects in the euro area, the United States and Japan," Working Paper Series 286, European Central Bank.
    5. Kpate Adjaoute & Jean-Pierre Danthine, 2004. "Portfolio diversification: alive and well in Euro-land!," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(17), pages 1225-1231.
    6. Maela Giofré, 2012. "Convergence of EMU Equity Portfolios," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 381-419, April.
    7. Sarafrazi, Soodabeh & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & AraújoSantos, Paulo, 2014. "Downside risk, portfolio diversification and the financial crisis in the euro-zone," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 368-396.
    8. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Burcu Erdogan & Vladimir Kuzin, 2009. "Testing for Convergence in Stock Markets: A Non-linear Factor Approach," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 932, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    9. Haselmann, Rainer & Herwartz, Helmut, 2010. "The introduction of the Euro and its effects on portfolio decisions," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 94-110, February.
    10. Moerman, Gerard A., 2008. "Diversification in euro area stock markets: Country versus industry," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1122-1134, November.
    11. Kearney, Colm & Poti, Valerio, 2006. "Correlation dynamics in European equity markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 305-321, September.
    12. repec:wsi:qjfxxx:v:02:y:2012:i:01:n:s2010139212500048 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Liu, Tengdong & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Santos, Paulo Araújo, 2014. "Downside risk and portfolio diversification in the euro-zone equity markets with special consideration of the crisis period," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 47-68.
    14. Mann, Catherine L. & Meade, Ellen E., 2002. "Home bias, transactions costs, and prospects for the Euro: A more detailed analysis," Research Notes 6, Deutsche Bank Research.
    15. Sinem Derindere Koseoglu & Ali Ozgür Karagülle, 2013. "Portfolio Diversification Benefits In Shipping Industry: A Cointegration Approach," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 5(2), pages 017-128, December.

    More about this item


    EMU; portfolio diversification; home bias;

    JEL classification:

    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets


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