IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ekd/006356/7474.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Taxing home ownership: distributional effects of including net imputed rent in taxable income

Author

Listed:
  • Panos Tsakloglou
  • Francesco Figari
  • Alari Paulus
  • Holly Sutherland
  • Gerlinde Verbist
  • Francesca Zantomio

Abstract

Imputed rental income of homeowners is tax exempt in most countries, despite the long-standing arguments recommending its inclusion in the tax base, on both equity and efficiency grounds. The current fiscal crisis revived interest towards this form of taxation. The paper investigates the fiscal and distributional consequences of including homeowners’ imputed rent, net of mortgage interest and maintenance costs, in taxable income as any cash income source that extends consumption opportunities. Three scenarios are analysed in six European countries: in the first imputed rent is included in the taxable income of homeowners, while at the same time existing mortgage interest tax relief schemes and taxation of cadastral incomes are abolished. In two further revenue-neutral scenarios, the additional tax revenue raised through the taxation of imputed rent is redistributed to taxpayers, either through a proportional rebate or a lump-sum tax credit. Results show how including net imputed rent in the tax base might affect inequality in each of the countries considered. Housing taxation appears to be a promising avenue for raising additional revenues, or lightening taxation of labour, with no inequality-increasing side-effects. See above See above

Suggested Citation

  • Panos Tsakloglou & Francesco Figari & Alari Paulus & Holly Sutherland & Gerlinde Verbist & Francesca Zantomio, 2014. "Taxing home ownership: distributional effects of including net imputed rent in taxable income," EcoMod2014 7474, EcoMod.
  • Handle: RePEc:ekd:006356:7474
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://ecomod.net/system/files/Tsakloglou%20%28EcoMod2014%29.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dan Andrews & Aida Caldera Sánchez & Åsa Johansson, 2011. "Housing Markets and Structural Policies in OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 836, OECD Publishing.
    2. Simone Pellegrino & Gilberto Turati, 2011. "Reducing The Tax Wedge On Labour Income By Reforming Housing Taxation: Can This Reform Achieve A Political Majority?," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 70(1), pages 123-154, January.
    3. Glaeser, Edward Ludwig, 2010. "Housing Policy in the Wake of the Crash," Scholarly Articles 10611669, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
    4. François Bourguignon & Amedeo Spadaro, 2006. "Microsimulation as a tool for evaluating redistribution policies," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 4(1), pages 77-106, April.
    5. Sutherland, Holly, 2001. "EUROMOD: an integrated European benefit-tax model: final report," EUROMOD Working Papers EM9/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    6. Pietro Catte & Nathalie Girouard & Robert Price & Christophe André, 2004. "Housing Markets, Wealth and the Business Cycle," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 394, OECD Publishing.
    7. Aaberge, Rolf & Bhuller, Manudeep & Langørgen, Audun & Mogstad, Magne, 2010. "The distributional impact of public services when needs differ," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(9-10), pages 549-562, October.
    8. Aaberge, Rolf & Langørgen, Audun & Mogstad, Magne & Østensen, Marit, 2008. "The Impact of Local Public Services and Geographical Cost of Living Differences on Poverty Estimates," IZA Discussion Papers 3686, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Gervais, Martin, 2002. "Housing taxation and capital accumulation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1461-1489, October.
    10. Gavin Cameron & John Muellbauer, 1998. "The Housing Market and Regional Commuting and Migration Choices," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 45(4), pages 420-446, September.
    11. (IFS), Institute for Fiscal Studies & Mirrlees, James (ed.), 2011. "Tax By Design: The Mirrlees Review," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199553747.
    12. Leonardo Gasparini & Walter Sosa Escudero, 2003. "Implicit Rents from Own-housing and Income Distribution: Econometric Estimates for Greater Buenos Aires," Journal of Income Distribution, Ad libros publications inc., vol. 12(1-2), pages 3-3, June.
    13. Bover, Olympia & Muellbauer, John & Murphy, Anthony, 1989. "Housing, Wages and UK Labour Markets," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 51(2), pages 97-136, March.
    14. MEULEMANS, Bert & CANTILLON, Bea, 1993. "De geruisloze kering: De nivellering van de intergenerationele welvaartsverschillen," Economic and Social Journal (Economisch en Sociaal Tijdschrift), University of Antwerp, Faculty of Business and Economics, vol. 47(3), pages 421-447, September.
    15. Garner, Thesia I. & Short, Kathleen, 2009. "Accounting for owner-occupied dwelling services: Aggregates and distributions," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 233-248, September.
    16. Avram, Silvia & Figari, Francesco & Leventi, Chrysa & Levy, Horacio & Navicke, Jekaterina & Matsaganis, Manos & Militaru, Eva & Paulus, Alari & Rastrigina, Olga & Sutherland, Holly, 2013. "The distributional effects of fiscal consolidation in nine EU countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/13, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    17. Judith Yates, 1982. "An Analysis of the Distributional Impact of Imputed Rent Taxation," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 58(2), pages 177-189, June.
    18. Dan Andrews & Aida Caldera Sánchez, 2011. "Drivers of Homeownership Rates in Selected OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 849, OECD Publishing.
    19. Edward L. Glaeser & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2003. "The Benefits of the Home Mortgage Interest Deduction," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 17, pages 37-82, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Richard Goode, 1960. "Imputed Rent Of Owner‐Occupied Dwellings Under The Income Tax," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 15(4), pages 504-530, December.
    21. Richard K. Green & Stephen Malpezzi & Stephen K. Mayo, 2005. "Metropolitan-Specific Estimates of the Price Elasticity of Supply of Housing, and Their Sources," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 334-339, May.
    22. Alari Paulus & Holly Sutherland & Panos Tsakloglou, 2010. "The distributional impact of in-kind public benefits in European countries," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2), pages 243-266.
    23. DiPasquale, Denise & Glaeser, Edward L., 1999. "Incentives and Social Capital: Are Homeowners Better Citizens?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 354-384, March.
    24. Cameron, Gavin & Muellbauer, John, 1998. "The Housing Market and Regional Commuting and Migration Choices," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 45(4), pages 420-446, September.
    25. Judith Yates, 1994. "Imputed Rent And Income Distribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 40(1), pages 43-66, March.
    26. Poterba, James M, 1992. "Taxation and Housing: Old Questions, New Answers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 237-242, May.
    27. Jens Matthias Arnold & Bert Brys & Christopher Heady & Åsa Johansson & Cyrille Schwellnus & Laura Vartia, 2011. "Tax Policy for Economic Recovery and Growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(550), pages 59-80, February.
    28. Cowell, F.A., 2000. "Measurement of inequality," Handbook of Income Distribution, in: A.B. Atkinson & F. Bourguignon (ed.), Handbook of Income Distribution, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 87-166, Elsevier.
    29. Tito Boeri & Katherine Terrell, 2002. "Institutional Determinants of Labor Reallocation in Transition," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 51-76, Winter.
    30. Joachim R. Frick & Jan Goebel & Markus M. Grabka, 2007. "Assessing the Distributional Impact of "Imputed Rent" and "Non-cash Employee Income" in Microdata: Case Studies Based on EU-SILC (2004) and SOEP (2002)," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 2, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    31. Joachim R. Frick & Markus M. Grabka, 2003. "Imputed Rent and Income Inequality: A Decomposition Analysis for Great Britain, West Germany and the U.S," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 49(4), pages 513-537, December.
    32. Vieri Ceriani & Stefano Manestra & Giacomo Ricotti & Alessandra Sanelli & Ernesto Zangari, 2011. "The tax system and the financial crisis," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 64(256), pages 39-94.
    33. Yates, Judith, 1982. "An Analysis of the Distributional Impact of Imputed Rent Taxation," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 58(161), pages 177-189, June.
    34. Frick, Joachim R. & Grabka, Markus M. & Smeeding, Timothy M. & Tsakloglou, Panos, 2010. "Distributional effects of imputed rents in five European countries," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 167-179, September.
    35. Feldstein, Martin, 1976. "On the theory of tax reform," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 77-104.
    36. Buckley, Robert M & Gurenko, Eugene N, 1997. "Housing and Income Distribution in Russia: Zhivago's Legacy," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 19-32, February.
    37. Chambers, Matthew & Garriga, Carlos & Schlagenhauf, Don E., 2009. "Housing policy and the progressivity of income taxation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(8), pages 1116-1134, November.
    38. Turnovsky, Stephen J. & Okuyama, Toshiyuki, 1994. "Taxes, housing, and capital accumulation in a two-sector growing economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 245-267, February.
    39. Gavin A. Wood, 1990. "The Tax Treatment of Housing: Economic Issues and Reform Measures," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 27(6), pages 809-830, December.
    40. Katherine A. Kiel & Jeffrey E. Zabel, 1999. "The Accuracy of Owner‐Provided House Values: The 1978–1991 American Housing Survey," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(2), pages 263-298, June.
    41. Onrubia, Jorge & Rodado, M. Carmen & Ayala, Luis, 2009. "How do services of owner-occupied housing affect income inequality and redistribution?," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 224-232, September.
    42. Skinner, Jonathan, 1996. "The dynamic efficiency cost of not taxing housing," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 397-417, March.
    43. Kneller, Richard & Bleaney, Michael F. & Gemmell, Norman, 1999. "Fiscal policy and growth: evidence from OECD countries," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 171-190, November.
    44. Berkovec, James & Fullerton, Don, 1992. "A General Equilibrium Model of Housing, Taxes, and Portfolio Choice," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 390-429, April.
    45. Aaron, Henry, 1970. "Income Taxes and Housing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(5), pages 789-806, December.
    46. Plotnick, Robert, 1982. "The concept and measurement of horizontal inequity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 373-391, April.
    47. Matsaganis, Manos & Flevotomou, Maria, 2007. "The impact of mortgage interest tax relief in the Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Italy and Greece," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/07, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    48. Peter Saunders & Peter Siminski, 2005. "Home Ownership And Inequality: Imputed Rent And Income Distribution In Australia," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 24(4), pages 346-367, December.
    49. John Hills & Holly Sutherland, 1991. "The proposed Council Tax," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 12(4), pages 1-21, November.
    50. Åsa Johansson & Chistopher Heady & Jens Matthias Arnold & Bert Brys & Laura Vartia, 2008. "Taxation and Economic Growth," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 620, OECD Publishing.
    51. Simone Pellegrino & Massimiliano Piacenza & Gilberto Turati, 2012. "Assessing the Distributional Effects of Housing Taxation in Italy: a Microsimulation Approach," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 58(3), pages 495-524, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Erlend Eide Bø, 2020. "Taxation of Housing: Killing Several Birds with One Stone," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 66(3), pages 534-557, September.
    2. Konstantin A. Kholodilin & Sebastian Kohl & Tobias Niemeyer, 2019. "Steuerliche Instrumente der Wohneigentumsförderung," DIW Roundup: Politik im Fokus 132, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Daniela Del Boca & Chiara Pronzato & Giuseppe Sorrenti, 2016. "When Rationing Plays a Role: Selection Criteria in the Italian Early Childcare System," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 62(4), pages 752-775.
    4. Virginia Maestri, 2015. "A Measure of Income Poverty Including Housing: Benefits and Limitations for Policy Making," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 121(3), pages 675-696, April.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Frick, Joachim R. & Grabka, Markus M. & Smeeding, Timothy M. & Tsakloglou, Panos, 2010. "Distributional Effects of Imputed Rents in Five European Countries," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 167-179.
    2. Erlend Eide Bø, 2020. "Taxation of Housing: Killing Several Birds with One Stone," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 66(3), pages 534-557, September.
    3. Carlos Felipe Balcázar & Lidia Ceriani & Sergio Olivieri & Marco Ranzani, 2017. "Rent‐Imputation for Welfare Measurement: A Review of Methodologies and Empirical Findings," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 63(4), pages 881-898, December.
    4. Christos Koutsampelas & Panos Tsakloglou, 2013. "The distribution of full income in Greece," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(4), pages 311-330, March.
    5. Theodore Panagiotidis & Panagiotis Printzis, 2016. "On the macroeconomic determinants of the housing market in Greece: a VECM approach," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 387-409, July.
    6. Simone Pellegrino & Massimiliano Piacenza & Gilberto Turati, 2011. "Assessing the Distributional Effects of Housing Taxation in Italy: From the Actual Tax Code to Imputed Rent," CESifo Working Paper Series 3368, CESifo.
    7. Gerlinde Verbist & Michael Föster & Vaalavou, M., 2013. "GINI DP 74: The Impact of Publicly Provided Services on the Distribution of Resources: Review of New Results and Methods," GINI Discussion Papers 74, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    8. Saarimaa, Tuukka & Kortelainen, Mika, 2012. "Do homeowners benefit urban neighborhoods? Evidence from housing prices," Working Papers 36, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    9. Markus M. Grabka & Gerlinde Verbist, 2015. "Non-cash benefits from social housing in Europe: a comparative perspective," ImPRovE Working Papers 15/07, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
    10. Alexeev, Sergey, 2020. "The role of imputed rents in intergenerational income mobility in three countries," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C).
    11. Tess Penne & Irene Cussó Parcerisas & Lauri Mäkinen & Bérénice Storms & Tim Goedemé, 2016. "Can reference budgets be used as a poverty line?," ImPRovE Working Papers 16/05, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
    12. Kilgarriff, Paul & Charlton, Martin & Foley, Ronan & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2019. "The impact of housing consumption value on the spatial distribution of welfare," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 118-130.
    13. Tuukka Saarimaa & Mika Kortelainen, 2012. "Do Homeowners Benefit the Neighborhood? Evidence from Semiparametric Hedonic Regressions," ERSA conference papers ersa12p472, European Regional Science Association.
    14. Salvador Barrios & Cecile Denis & Viginta Ivaskaite-Tamosiune & Adriana Reut & Estefania Vazquez Torres, 2019. "Housing taxation: a new database for Europe," JRC Working Papers on Taxation & Structural Reforms 2019-08, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    15. Stefan Kranzinger, 2020. "The decomposition of income inequality in the EU-28," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 47(3), pages 643-668, August.
    16. Francesco Figari & Gerlinde Verbist & Francesca Zantomio, 2019. "Homeownership Investment and Tax Neutrality. A joint assessment of income and property taxes in Europe," Working Papers 2019: 27, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
    17. Schünemann, Johannes & Trimborn, Timo, 2017. "Boosting taxes for boasting about houses: Status concerns in the housing market," ECON WPS - Working Papers in Economic Theory and Policy 05/2017, TU Wien, Institute of Statistics and Mathematical Methods in Economics, Economics Research Unit.
    18. Essi Eerola & Niku Määttänen, 2013. "The Optimal Tax Treatment of Housing Capital in the Neoclassical Growth Model," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 15(6), pages 912-938, December.
    19. Wenli Li & Edison Yu, . "Real Estate Taxes and Home Value: Evidence from TCJA," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics.
    20. Frick, Joachim R. & Grabka, Markus M., 2009. "Accounting for Imputed and Capital Income Flows in Income Inequality Analyses," IZA Discussion Papers 4634, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    See above; Impact and scenario analysis; Microsimulation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ekd:006356:7474. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Theresa Leary). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ecomoea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.