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A model of aggregate demand and unemployment

  • Pascal Michaillat
  • Emmanuel Saez

We present a static model of aggregate demand and unemployment. The economy has a nonproduced good, a produced good, and labor. Product and labor markets have matching frictions. A general equilibrium is a set of prices, market tightnesses, and quantities such that buyers and sellers optimize given prices and tightnesses, and actual tightnesses equal posted tightnesses. In each frictional market,there is one more variable than equilibrium condition. To close the model, we take all prices as parameters. We obtain the following results: (1) unemployment and unsold production prevail in equilibrium; (2) each market can be slack, efficient, or tight if the price is too high, efficient, or too low; (3) product market tightness and sales are positively correlated under aggregate demand shocks but negatively correlated under aggregate supply shocks; (4) transfers from savers to spenders stimulate aggregate demand, product market tightness, and employment; (5) the government-purchase multiplier is positive when the economy is slack, zero when the economy is efficient,and negative when the economy is tight; (6) with unequal distribution of profits and labor income, a wage increase may stimulate aggregate demand and reduce unemployment.

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Paper provided by London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library in its series LSE Research Online Documents on Economics with number 51579.

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Length: 62 pages
Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ehl:lserod:51579
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  1. Etienne, LEHMANN & Bruno, VAN DER LINDEN, 2007. "Search Frictions on Product and Labor markets : Money in the Matching Function," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2007013, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  2. Ven Der Linden B. & Lehmann E., 2006. "Search Frictions on Product and Labor markets," Working Papers ERMES 0604, ERMES, University Paris 2.
  3. Camille Landais & Pascal Michaillat & Emmanuel Saez, 2011. "Optimal Unemployment Insurance Over the Business Cycle," CEP Discussion Papers dp1078, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  4. Gauti B. Eggertsson & Paul Krugman, 2012. "Debt, Deleveraging, and the Liquidity Trap: A Fisher-Minsky-Koo Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(3), pages 1469-1513.
  5. Greg Kaplan & Guido Menzio, 2012. "Shopping Externalities and Self-Fulfilling Unemployment Fluctuations," PIER Working Paper Archive 12-048, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  6. Wasmer, Etienne, 2011. "A Steady-State Model of a Non-Walrasian Economy with Three Imperfect Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 5758, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Pascal Michaillat, 2010. "Do Matching Frictions Explain Unemployment? Not in Bad Times," CEP Discussion Papers dp1024, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  8. Roger E. A. Farmer, 2008. "Aggregate demand and supply," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 4(1), pages 77-93.
  9. Moen, Espen R, 1997. "Competitive Search Equilibrium," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(2), pages 385-411, April.
  10. repec:oup:restud:v:49:y:1982:i:2:p:217-27 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Valerie A. Ramey, 2011. "Can Government Purchases Stimulate the Economy?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 49(3), pages 673-85, September.
  12. Mortensen, Dale T, 1982. "Property Rights and Efficiency in Mating, Racing, and Related Games," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(5), pages 968-79, December.
  13. Benassy, Jean-Pascal, 1993. "Nonclearing Markets: Microeconomic Concepts and Macroeconomic Applications," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 732-61, June.
  14. repec:oup:qjecon:v:106:y:1991:i:1:p:163-79 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/5l6uh8ogmqildh09h481p4obg is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Barro, Robert J & Grossman, Herschel I, 1971. "A General Disequilibrium Model of Income and Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 82-93, March.
  17. Robert E. Hall, 2008. "General Equilibrium with Customer Relationships: A Dynamic Analysis of Rent-Seeking," 2008 Meeting Papers 312, Society for Economic Dynamics.
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