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A Model of Aggregate Demand and Unemployment

Author

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  • Michaillat, Pascal
  • Saez, Emmanuel

Abstract

We present a static model of aggregate demand and unemployment. The economy has a nonproduced good, a produced good, and labor. Product and labor markets have matching frictions. A general equilibrium is a set of prices, market tightnesses, and quantities such that buyers and sellers optimize given prices and tightnesses, and actual tightnesses equal posted tightnesses. In each frictional market, there is one more variable than equilibrium condition. To close the model, we take all prices as parameters. We obtain the following results: (1) unemployment and unsold production prevail in equilibrium; (2) each market can be slack, efficient, or tight if the price is too high, efficient, or too low; (3) product market tightness and sales are positively correlated under aggregate demand shocks but negatively correlated under aggregate supply shocks; (4) transfers from savers to spenders stimulate aggregate demand, product market tightness, and employment; (5) the government-purchase multiplier is positive when the economy is slack, zero when the economy is efficient, and negative when the economy is tight; (6) with unequal distribution of profits and labor income, a wage increase may stimulate aggregate demand and reduce unemployment.

Suggested Citation

  • Michaillat, Pascal & Saez, Emmanuel, 2013. "A Model of Aggregate Demand and Unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 9609, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:9609
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Landais, Camille & Michaillat, Pascal & Saez, Emmanuel, 2010. "Optimal Unemployment Insurance over the Business Cycle," CEPR Discussion Papers 8132, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Lehmann, Etienne & Van Der Linden, Bruno, 2010. "Search Frictions On Product And Labor Markets: Money In The Matching Function," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(01), pages 56-92, February.
    3. Ven Der Linden B. & Lehmann E., 2006. "Search Frictions on Product and Labor markets," Working Papers ERMES 0604, ERMES, University Paris 2.
    4. Etienne Wasmer, 2011. "A steady-state model of a non-walrasian economy with three imperfect markets," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/5l6uh8ogmqi, Sciences Po.
    5. Pascal Michaillat, 2012. "Do Matching Frictions Explain Unemployment? Not in Bad Times," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(4), pages 1721-1750, June.
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    7. Roger E. A. Farmer, 2008. "Aggregate demand and supply," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 4(1), pages 77-93.
    8. Valerie A. Ramey, 2011. "Can Government Purchases Stimulate the Economy?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 49(3), pages 673-685, September.
    9. Robert Shimer, 2010. "Labor Markets and Business Cycles," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 9217, June.
    10. Peter A. Diamond, 1982. "Wage Determination and Efficiency in Search Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(2), pages 217-227.
    11. Benassy, Jean-Pascal, 1993. "Nonclearing Markets: Microeconomic Concepts and Macroeconomic Applications," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 732-761, June.
    12. Gauti B. Eggertsson & Paul Krugman, 2012. "Debt, Deleveraging, and the Liquidity Trap: A Fisher-Minsky-Koo Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(3), pages 1469-1513.
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    19. James D. Montgomery, 1991. "Equilibrium Wage Dispersion and Interindustry Wage Differentials," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(1), pages 163-179.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Landais, Camille & Michaillat, Pascal & Saez, Emmanuel, 2010. "Optimal Unemployment Insurance over the Business Cycle," CEPR Discussion Papers 8132, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Zhen Huo & Jose-Victor Rios-Rull, 2015. "Tightening Financial Frictions on Households, Recessions, and Price Reallocations," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 18(1), pages 118-139, January.
    3. Huo, Zhen & Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor, 2016. "Financial Frictions, Asset Prices, and the Great Recession," CEPR Discussion Papers 11544, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Rios-Rull, Jose-Victor & Huo, Zhen, 2016. "Financial Frictions, Asset Prices, and the Great Recession," Staff Report 526, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    5. Pascal Michaillat & Emmanuel Saez, 2014. "An Economical Business-Cycle Model," Working Papers Series 6, Institute for New Economic Thinking.
    6. Ryan Chahrour & Sanjay K. Chugh & Tristan Potter, 2014. "Searching for Wages in an Estimated Labor Matching Model," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 867, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 20 Dec 2016.
    7. Charpe, Matthieu & Kühn, Stefan, 2015. "Demand and supply effects of bargaining power shocks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 21-32.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Aggregate Demand; Labor Market Tightness; Unemployment;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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