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The Making and Consolidation of the First National Trademark System: Diffusion of Trademarks across Spanish Regions (1850–1920)


  • Patricio Saiz
  • Jose Luis Zofio


This article studies the creation and consolidation of a trademark system tantamount to market integration and commercial specialization of Spanish regions from 1850 to 1920. We analyze the first 47,000 registrations, their geographical distribution, and the drivers behind this trademark expansion. By using a lineal probability model, we find knowledge spillovers across regions are associated with their relative trademark specialization and diversification. We incorporate the role played by transport infrastructure by calculating generalized transport costs. Our results clarify the origins and evolution of geographical differences in commercial innovation and regional specialization in the first country to institute modern trademark legislation.

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  • Patricio Saiz & Jose Luis Zofio, 2020. "The Making and Consolidation of the First National Trademark System: Diffusion of Trademarks across Spanish Regions (1850–1920)," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2060, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Dec 2020.
  • Handle: RePEc:egu:wpaper:2060

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    Trademarks/Branding; Specialization/Diversification; Generalized Transport Costs; Regional History; Makets; Spain;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • N93 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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