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The global distribution of trademarks - some stylized facts

Author

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  • Baroncelli, Eugenia
  • Kink, Carsten
  • Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata

Abstract

Trademarks are words, signs, symbols, or combinations thereof that identify goods as manufactured by a particular person or a company, therefore allowing consumers to distinguish between goods originating in different sources. Trademarks belong to the wider family of intellectual property rights (IPRs), and once registered benefit from legal protection against unauthorized use by entities other than the legal owner. While some suggest that cross-border registrations of IPRs may be associated with welfare transfers from developing to industrial countries, surprisingly little is known about an important component of the global IPR system, namely, the worldwide distribution of trademark registrations. This study provides the first step in filling this gap in the literature. Its purpose is to present some new stylized facts which emerge from the analysis of a dataset compiled by the authors based on the statistical information published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Questions of interest include the distribution of trademarks between countries of different income levels, the share of trademark registrations accounted for by foreign residents and its variation across different income groups, the extent to which poor countries participate in the international trademark system, and the distribution of registrations across different sectors of the economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Baroncelli, Eugenia & Kink, Carsten & Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata, 2004. "The global distribution of trademarks - some stylized facts," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3270, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3270
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Landes, William M & Posner, Richard A, 1987. "Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 265-309, October.
    2. Carsten Fink & Beata Smarzynska Javorcik & Mariana Spatareanu, 2005. "Income-Related Biases in International Trade: What Do Trademark Registration Data Tell Us?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(1), pages 79-103, April.
    3. Braga, C.A.P. & Fink, C. & Sepulveda, C.P., 2000. "Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Development," World Bank - Discussion Papers 412, World Bank.
    4. McCalman, Phillip, 2001. "Reaping what you sow: an empirical analysis of international patent harmonization," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 161-186, October.
    5. repec:rus:hseeco:123679 is not listed on IDEAS
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    1. Eugenia Baroncelli & Ekaterina Krivonos & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2007. "Trademark Protection or Protectionism?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 126-145, February.
    2. Zhiyuan Chen & Aksel Erbahar & Yuan Zi, 2019. "Made and Created in China: Super Processors and Two-way Heterogeneity," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 19-080/VI, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Lampach, Nicolas & Wijtvliet, Wessel & Dyevre, Arthur, 2020. "Merchant hubs and spatial disparities in the private enforcement of international trade regimes," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    4. Stefano Comino & Fabio Maria Manenti, 2015. "Intellectual Property and Innovation in Information and Communication Technology (ICT)," JRC Working Papers JRC97541, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    5. Emin Dinlersoz & Nathan Goldschlag & Amanda Myers & Nikolas Zolas, 2018. "An Anatomy of U.S. Firms Seeking Trademark Registration," NBER Chapters, in: Measuring and Accounting for Innovation in the Twenty-First Century, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Carsten Fink & Beata Smarzynska Javorcik & Mariana Spatareanu, 2005. "Income-Related Biases in International Trade: What Do Trademark Registration Data Tell Us?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(1), pages 79-103, April.
    7. Crass, Dirk, 2020. "Which firms use trademarks? Firm-level evidence from Germany on the role of distance, product quality and innovation," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 730-755.
    8. Anders, Sven M. & Caswell, Julie A., 2009. "The Benefits and Costs of Proliferation of Geographical Labeling for Developing Countries," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 10(1), pages 1-17.
    9. Travis J. Lybbert & Nikolas J. Zolas & Prantik Bhattacharyya, 2014. "An "Algorithmic Links with Probabilities" Concordance for Trademarks For Disaggregated Analysis of Trademark and Economic Data," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 14, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division.
    10. Crass, Dirk, 2014. "The impact of brand use on innovation performance: Empirical results for Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-119, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    11. Stephen Petrie & Mitchell Adams & Ben Mitra‐Kahn & Matthew Johnson & Russell Thomson & Paul Jensen & Alfons Palangkaraya & Elizabeth Webster, 2020. "TM‐Link: An Internationally Linked Trademark Database," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 53(2), pages 254-269, June.
    12. Haskel, J & Corrado, C & Jona-Lasinio, C & Iommi, M, 2013. "Innovation and intangible investment in Europe, Japan and the US," Working Papers 11139, Imperial College, London, Imperial College Business School.
    13. Ardito, Lorenzo & Ernst, Holger & Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio, 2020. "The interplay between technology characteristics, R&D internationalisation, and new product introduction: Empirical evidence from the energy conservation sector," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 96.
    14. Giovanni B. Ramello, 2008. "Semiotica, diritti e mercato. Economia del marchio nel terzo millennio," ECONOMIA E POLITICA INDUSTRIALE, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2008(1), pages 107-125.
    15. Nikolas Zolas & Travis J. Lybbert & Prantik Bhattacharyya, 2013. "An ‘Algorithmic Links With Probabilities’ Concordance For Trademarks: For Disaggregated Analysis Of Trademark & Economic Data," Working Papers 13-49, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    16. Crass, Dirk, 2014. "Which firms use trademarks - and why? Representative firm-level evidence from Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-118, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    17. Xinghua Deng & Ran Jing & Zheng Liang, 2020. "Trade liberalisation and domestic brands: Evidence from China's accession to the WTO," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(8), pages 2237-2262, August.
    18. Yoon Heo & Tran N. Kien, 2011. "Vietnam's Intellectual Property Landscape from a Regional Perspective," International Area Studies Review, Center for International Area Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, vol. 14(1), pages 73-104, March.

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