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Child labor in Bolivia: schooling, gender and ethnic groups

  • Daniela Zapata
  • Dante Contreras

Even tough child labor is a wide spread phenomena in Bolivia, little is known about its main determinants. By using a bivariate probit model in order to take into account the joint nature of the decisions between labor and schooling, this paper investigates which are the key factors that influence the probability that a child works. The available information for the year 2001 allow us to make a comparative analysis between an “exclusive†definition of labor, which refers only to market oriented tasks, and an “inclusive†definition of labor, which also takes into account household duties. The results show that if we use the “exclusive†definition, the girl’s participation rate on the labor market is underestimated. Many types of segregation of the data have been performed, which enable us to identify that exogenous factors affect children in different ways, depending on the geographical area of the household, the gender and the ethnic background of the children. We were able to identify that the most vulnerable group are indigenous children and in particular indigenous girls. Conversely high education of the head of the family lowers the probability that a child works

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Paper provided by Econometric Society in its series Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings with number 224.

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Date of creation: 11 Aug 2004
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Handle: RePEc:ecm:latm04:224
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  1. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
  2. Blunch, Niels-Hugo & Verner, Dorte, 2000. "Revisiting the link between poverty and child labor - the Ghanaian experience," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2488, The World Bank.
  3. Marcelo Ochoa & Alejandra Bonifaz, 2003. "An Analysis of Disparities in Education: The Case of Primary School Completion Rates in Bolivia," HEW 0302001, EconWPA.
  4. George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
  5. Grootaert, Christiaan & Kanbur, Ravi, 1995. "Child labor : a review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1454, The World Bank.
  6. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
  7. Grootaert, Christiaan, 1998. "Child labor in Cote d'Ivoire: incidence and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1905, The World Bank.
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