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Leading indicators of systemic banking crises: Finland in a panel of EU countries

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  • Sarlin, Peter
  • Laina, Patrizio
  • Nyholm, Juho

Abstract

This paper investigates leading indicators of systemic banking crises in a panel of 11 EU countries, with a particular focus on Finland. We use quarterly data from 1980Q1 to 2013Q2, in order to create a large number of macro-financial indicators, as well as their various transformations. We make use of univariate signal extraction and multivariate logit analysis to assess what factors lead the occurrence of a crisis and with what horizon the indicators lead a crisis. We find that loans-to-deposits and house price growth are the best leading indicators. Growth rates and trend deviations of loan stock variables also yield useful signals of impending crises. While the optimal lead horizon is three years, indicators generally perform well with lead times ranging from one to four years. We also tap into unique long time-series of the Finnish economy to perform historical explorations into macro-financial vulnerabilities. JEL Classification: E44, F30, G01, G15, C43

Suggested Citation

  • Sarlin, Peter & Laina, Patrizio & Nyholm, Juho, 2015. "Leading indicators of systemic banking crises: Finland in a panel of EU countries," Working Paper Series 1758, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20151758
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    Cited by:

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    3. Mojmír Hampl and Tomáš Havránek, 2017. "Should monetary policy pay attention to house prices? The Czech National Bank’s approach," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Macroprudential policy frameworks, implementation and relationships with other policies, volume 94, pages 129-140, Bank for International Settlements.
    4. Kalatie, Simo & Laakkonen, Helinä & Tölö, Eero, 2015. "Indicators used in setting the countercyclical capital buffer," Research Discussion Papers 8/2015, Bank of Finland.
    5. Ons Jedidi & Jean Sébastien Pentecote, 2015. "Robust Signals for Banking Crises," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(3), pages 1617-1629.
    6. CIMPOERU Smaranda, 2016. "European Economies Facing The Global Financial Crisis: Are Emerging Economies More Vulnerable Than Advanced Ones?," Revista Economica, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 68(2), pages 69-85, September.
    7. Sarlin, Peter & Holopainen, Markus, 2016. "Toward robust early-warning models: a horse race, ensembles and model uncertainty," Working Paper Series 1900, European Central Bank.
    8. Mikel Bedayo & Ángel Estrada & Jesús Saurina, 2018. "Bank capital, lending booms, and busts. Evidence from Spain in the last 150 years," Working Papers 1847, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    9. Ons Jedidi & Jean-Sébastien Pentecôte, 2015. "Prédire les crises bancaires : un système d’alerte robuste," Revue française d'économie, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(3), pages 189-225.
    10. Markus Holopainen & Peter Sarlin, 2015. "Toward robust early-warning models: A horse race, ensembles and model uncertainty," Papers 1501.04682, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2016.
    11. Torsten Wezel, 2019. "Conceptual Issues in Calibrating the Basel III Countercyclical Capital Buffer," IMF Working Papers 2019/086, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Jan Bruha & Michal Hlavacek & Lubos Komarek, 2017. "House Prices and Household Consumption: The Case of the Czech Republic," Working Papers 2017/11, Czech National Bank.
    13. Koong, Seow Shin & Law, Siong Hook & Ibrahim, Mansor H., 2017. "Credit expansion and financial stability in Malaysia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 339-350.
    14. Peltonen, Tuomas A. & Sarlin, Peter & Piloiu, Andreea, 2015. "Network linkages to predict bank distress," Working Paper Series 1828, European Central Bank.
    15. Savas Papadopoulos & Pantelis Stavroulias & Thomas Sager, 2016. "Systemic early warning systems for EU15 based on the 2008 crisis," Working Papers 202, Bank of Greece.
    16. Zhi-Qiang Jiang & Gang-Jin Wang & Askery Canabarro & Boris Podobnik & Chi Xie & H. Eugene Stanley & Wei-Xing Zhou, 2018. "Short term prediction of extreme returns based on the recurrence interval analysis," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 353-370, March.
    17. Mojmir Hampl & Tomas Havranek, 2017. "Should Inflation Measures Used by Central Banks Incorporate House Prices? The Czech Approach," Working Papers IES 2017/12, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, revised Jul 2017.
    18. Cristina Pereira Pedro & Joaquim J. S. Ramalho & Jacinto Vidigal Silva, 2018. "The main determinants of banking crises in OECD countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 154(1), pages 203-227, February.
    19. Eero Tölö & Helinä Laakkonen & Simo Kalatie, 2018. "Evaluating Indicators for Use in Setting the Countercyclical Capital Buffer," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 14(2), pages 51-112, March.
    20. Tomas Havranek & Mojmir Hampl, 2017. "Should Inflation Measures Used by Central Banks Incorporate House Prices? The Czech National Bank's Approach," Research and Policy Notes 2017/01, Czech National Bank.
    21. Ruoxi Zhang & Xue Li & Satish Chand, 2018. "An Early Warning Of An Impending Currency Crisis In China," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 64(05), pages 1101-1125, July.
    22. Crowley, Patrick & Hughes Hallett, Andrew, 2014. "Volatility transfers between cycles: A theory of why the "great moderation" was more mirage than moderation," Research Discussion Papers 23/2014, Bank of Finland.
    23. Constantin, Andreea & Peltonen, Tuomas A. & Sarlin, Peter, 2018. "Network linkages to predict bank distress," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 226-241.
    24. Filippopoulou, Chryssanthi & Galariotis, Emilios & Spyrou, Spyros, 2020. "An early warning system for predicting systemic banking crises in the Eurozone: A logit regression approach," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 344-363.
    25. Savas Papadopoulos & Pantelis Stavroulias & Thomas Sager, 2019. "Systemic early warning systems for EU14 based on the 2008 crisis: proposed estimation and model assessment for classification forecasting," Journal of Banking Regulation, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 20(3), pages 226-244, September.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    banking crisis; Leading indicators; logit analysis; macro-financial indicators; signal extraction;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation

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