IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/dia/wpaper/dt200615.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

La croissance est-elle pro-pauvres au Mali ?

Author

Listed:
  • Isabel Günther

    () (University of Göttingen, Department of Economics)

  • Mohamed Ali Marouani

    () (DIAL)

  • Marc Raffinot

    () (DIAL, University Paris Dauphine,EURIsCO)

Abstract

(english) Since the 1994 devaluation, growth has been quite strong in Mali (about 5% p.a. on average), but much weaker in terms of GDP per person (about 2.6% p.a.) due to a very high index of fecundity. Growth is still very unstable, due to a large share of agriculture in GDP and very sensitive to rainfall and other shocks (droughts, locusts, etc.). Following a surge after the devaluation, poverty incidence plummeted slightly. Extreme poverty decreased, and growth has been pro-poor to some extent in monetary terms. The analysis of social indicators shows that non-poor benefited more in terms of education, nutrition and health. The high degree of inequality is important for explaining the disappointing results in poverty reduction. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) gives priority to investment in education and health supply. In countries like Mali, the likely effect of such policies is questionable, at least in the short or medium run. We propose to focus on the dynamics of poverty alleviation. For promoting the equality of opportunities and poverty reduction, redistribution issues should be tackled, along with increasing the production of rainfall cereals, and a steady job creation in urban areas. _________________________________ (français) Depuis la dévaluation de 1994, la croissance au Mali se situe en moyenne à 5 % par an environ (soit la moitié en termes de revenu par tête du fait d’une fécondité qui reste extrêmement élevée et semble même continuer à progresser). La croissance se situe ainsi en dessus de son niveau de long terme, mais continue à dépendre des aléas qui frappent le secteur rural (sécheresses, invasions acridiennes, inondations). La réduction de la pauvreté est restée extrêmement modeste. La dévaluation a considérablement accru l’incidence de la pauvreté, et la relance de la croissance n’a pas réussi à la réduire sensiblement. L’extrême pauvreté en revanche semble avoir quelque peu diminué et la croissance a été légèrement pro-pauvres. En revanche, l’amélioration globale des indicateurs sociaux en termes d’éducation, de nutrition et de santé a surtout bénéficié aux non-pauvres. La forte inégalité des revenus au Mali est l’une des raisons de la faible élasticité de réduction de la pauvreté par rapport à la croissance. Les politiques de réduction de la pauvreté ont été axées jusqu’ici sur l’augmentation de l’offre de services sociaux (éducation, santé). Il n’est pas sûr que ceci puisse à court terme permettre une amélioration sensible du niveau de vie des pauvres. Pour accroître l’égalité des chances et réduire la pauvreté, il sera nécessaire de mettre en oeuvre certaines formes de redistribution, ainsi qu’un accroissement de la productivité dans les secteurs des céréales pluviales et de fortes créations d’emplois en ville.

Suggested Citation

  • Isabel Günther & Mohamed Ali Marouani & Marc Raffinot, 2006. "La croissance est-elle pro-pauvres au Mali ?," Working Papers DT/2006/15, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200615
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2006/2006-15
    File Function: First version, 2006
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. E. N. Appiah & W. W. McMahon, 2002. "The Social Outcomes of Education and Feedbacks on Growth in Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 27-68.
    2. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2002. "Growth Is Good for the Poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 195-225, September.
    3. Jeffrey D. Vitale & John H. Sanders, 2005. "New markets and technological change for the traditional cereals in semiarid sub-Saharan Africa: the Malian case," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 32(2), pages 111-129, March.
    4. Kanbur Ravi, 2001. "Economic Policy, Distribution and Poverty: The Nature of Disagreements," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 7(2), pages 1-26, April.
    5. Jean-Paul Azam & Flore Gubert, 2005. "Those in Kayes. The Impact of Remittances on Their Recipients in Africa," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 56(6), pages 1331-1358.
    6. Grosse, Melanie & Harttgen, Kenneth & Klasen, Stephan, 2008. "Measuring Pro-Poor Growth in Non-Income Dimensions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1021-1047, June.
    7. Jean-Pierre Cling & Philippe De Vreyer & Mireille Razafindrakoto & François Roubaud, 2004. "La croissance ne suffit pas pour réduire la pauvreté," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 18(3), pages 137-187.
    8. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4571 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Sahn, David E. & Stifel, David C., 2000. "Poverty Comparisons Over Time and Across Countries in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2123-2155, December.
    10. John M. Staatz & Victoire C. D'Agostino & Shelly Sundberg, 1990. "Measuring Food Security in Africa: Conceptual, Empirical, and Policy Issues," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 72(5), pages 1311-1317.
    11. Mohamed Ali Marouani & Marc Raffinot, 2004. "Perspectives on growth and poverty reduction in Mali," Working Papers DT/2004/05, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    12. Stephan Klasen, 2003. "In Search of The Holy Grail: How to Achieve Pro-Poor Growth ?," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 096, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    13. A. de Janvry & E. Sadoulet, 2002. "World Poverty and the Role of Agricultural Technology: Direct and Indirect Effects," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 1-26.
    14. Lopez, Ramon E., 2001. "Growth, Poverty And Asset Allocation: The Role Of The State," Discussion Papers 18724, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
    15. Fofack, Hippolyte & Monga, Celestin & Tuluy, Hasan, 2001. "Household welfare and poverty dynamics in Burkina Faso : empirical evidence from household surveys," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2590, The World Bank.
    16. Abdulai, Awudu & CroleRees, Anna, 2001. "Determinants of income diversification amongst rural households in Southern Mali," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 437-452, August.
    17. Melanie Grosse & Stephan Klasen & Julius Spatz, 2005. "Creating National Poverty Profiles and Growth Incidence Curves with Incomplete Income or Consumption Expenditure Data: An Application to Bolivia," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 129, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    18. Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 1999. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to Cross-National Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7081, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. repec:umd:umdeco:rodriguez9901 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 2003. "Measuring pro-poor growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 93-99, January.
    21. Diagana, Bocar & Akindes, Francis & Savadogo, Kimseyinga & Reardon, Thomas & Staatz, John, 1999. "Effects of the CFA franc devaluation on urban food consumption in West Africa: overview and cross-country comparisons," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 465-478, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Loesse Jacques Esso, 2012. "Is Economic Growth In Cote D'Ivoire Pro-Poor? Evidence From Lsms Data: A Note," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 575-580, October.
    2. Cherrier, Cecile & Ninno, Carlo del & Razmara, Setareh, 2011. "Mali social safety nets," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 89188, The World Bank.
    3. Abdelkader Elkhider & Abdelhamid El Bouhadi & El Mustapha Kchirid, 2009. "La Croissance Economique Est-T-Elle Pro Pauvre au Maroc ? Une Tentative D’explication par L’approche Monétaire et L’approche Non Monétaire," Working Papers 481, Economic Research Forum, revised Apr 2009.
    4. Abdelhamid EL BOUHADI & Abdelkader ELKHIDER & El Mustapha KCHIRID, 2010. "Can Economic Growth Be Pro-Poor In Morocco?. The No-Monetary Approach," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 10(2).
    5. Dorothée Boccanfuso & Jean Bosco Ki & Caroline Ménard, 2009. "Pro-Poor Growth Measurements in a Multidimensional Model: A Comparative Approach," Cahiers de recherche 09-22, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke.
    6. Jocelyne Delarue & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps & Jean-David Naudet & Anne-Sophie Robilliard, 2009. "The Sikasso Paradoxe: Cotton and Poverty in Mali," Working Papers DT/2009/09, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    7. Grosse, Melanie & Harttgen, Kenneth & Klasen, Stephan, 2008. "Measuring Pro-Poor Growth in Non-Income Dimensions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1021-1047, June.
    8. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4543 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Prospère Backiny-Yetna & Franck Adoho & Issa Bouaré & Virginie Briand & Kassim Dabitao & Assa Gakou & Estelle Sommeiller & Dramane Traoré & Clarence Tsimpo & Quentin Wodon, 2009. "Tendance, profil et déterminants de la pauvreté au Mali de 2001 à 2006," Perspective Afrique, Association Africaine pour les Sciences sociales, vol. 4(1-3), pages 1-24.
    10. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4303 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Isaline Bergamaschi, 2011. "« Appropriation » et « lutte contre la pauvreté » au Mali. Interprétations, pratiques et discours concurrents," Revue Tiers-Monde, Armand Colin, vol. 0(1), pages 135-150.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Poverty reduction policies; Poverty; inequality; Mali; growth; redistribution; pro-poor growth; growth incidence curve; Politiques de lutte contre la pauvreté; pauvreté; inégalité; Mali; croissance; redistribution; croissance pro-pauvres; courbe d’incidence de la croissance.;

    JEL classification:

    • H50 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - General
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200615. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Loic Le Pezennec). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/diallfr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.