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Xenophobic Attacks, Migration Intentions and Networks: Evidence from the South of Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Guido Friebel

    (Goethe University Frankfurt, IZA and CEPR)

  • Juan Miguel Gallego

    (Universidad del Rosario and Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano)

  • Mariapia Mendola

    (University of Milan Bicocca and Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano)

Abstract

We investigate how emigration flows from a developing region are affected by xenophobic violence at destination. Our empirical analysis is based on a unique survey among more than 1000 households collected in Mozambique in summer 2008, a few months after a series of xenophobic attacks in South Africa killed dozens and displaced thousands of immigrants from neighbouring countries. We estimate migration intentions of Mozambicans before and after the attacks, controlling for the characteristics of households and previous migration behaviour. Using a placebo period, we show that other things equal, the migration intention of household heads decreases from 37 to 33 percent. The sensitivity of migration intentions to violence is larger for household heads with many children younger than 15 years, decreasing the migration intention by 11 percentage points. Most importantly, the sensitivity of migration intentions is highest for those household heads with many young children whose families have no access to social networks. For these household heads, the intention falls by 15 percentage points. Social networks provide insurance against the consequences young children suffer in case the household head would be harmed by xenophobic violence and consequently could not provide for the family.

Suggested Citation

  • Guido Friebel & Juan Miguel Gallego & Mariapia Mendola, 2011. "Xenophobic Attacks, Migration Intentions and Networks: Evidence from the South of Africa," Development Working Papers 321, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 17 Oct 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:csl:devewp:321
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    Cited by:

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    3. Adnan Efendic, 2016. "Emigration intentions in a post-conflict environment: evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(3), pages 335-352, July.
    4. Linguère Mbaye, 2014. "“Barcelona or die”: understanding illegal migration from Senegal," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-19, December.
    5. Becker, Malte & Krüger, Finja & Heidland, Tobias, 2024. "What Drives Attitudes toward Immigrants in Sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from Uganda and Senegal," IZA Discussion Papers 16734, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Agüero,Jorge M. & Fasola,Eniola, 2022. "Distributional Policies and Social Cohesion in a High-Unemployment Setting," Policy Research Working Paper Series 10103, The World Bank.
    7. Augustin de Coulon & Dragos Radu & Max Friedrich Steinhardt, 2016. "Pane e Cioccolata: The Impact of Native Attitudes on Return Migration," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(2), pages 253-281, May.
    8. Costanza Biavaschi & Giovanni Facchini & Anna Maria Mayda & Mariapia Mendola, 2018. "South–South migration and the labor market: evidence from South Africa," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(4), pages 823-853.
    9. Artjoms Ivlevs, 2014. "Happy moves? Assessing the impact of subjective well-being on the emigration decision," Working Papers 20141402, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
    10. Becker, Malte & Krüger, Finja & Heidland, Tobias, 2022. "Country, culture or competition: What drives attitudes towards immigrants in Sub-Saharan Africa?," Kiel Working Papers 2224, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).
    11. Bedasso Biniam E. & Jaupart Pascal, 2020. "South-South migration and elections: evidence from post-apartheid South Africa," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 11(1), pages 1-47, January.
    12. Besart Avdiu, 2018. "The Effect of Attitudes toward Migrants on Migrant Skill Composition," CESifo Working Paper Series 6919, CESifo.
    13. Endrich, Marek, 2020. "The good tourist, the bad refugee and the ugly German: Xenophobic activities and tourism," VfS Annual Conference 2020 (Virtual Conference): Gender Economics 224604, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    14. Steinhardt, Max F., 2018. "The Impact of Xenophobic Violence on the Integration of Immigrants," IZA Discussion Papers 11781, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Matthias Huber & Till Nikolka & Panu Poutvaara & Ann-Marie Sommerfeld & Silke Uebelmesser, 2022. "Migration Aspirations and Intentions," CESifo Working Paper Series 9708, CESifo.
    16. Besart Avdiu, 2018. "The Effect of Attitudes toward Migrants on Migrant Skill Composition," LIS Working papers 718, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    violence; risk; migration; household behaviour; Mozambique;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • R2 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis
    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior

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