The Complexity of Immigrant Generations: Implications for Assessing the Socioeconomic Integration of Hispanics and Asians
Much of the socioeconomic mobility achieved by U.S. immigrant families takes place across rather than within generations. When assessing the long-term integration of immigrants, it is therefore important to analyze differences not just between the foreign-born and U.S-born, but also across generations of the U.S.-born. Because of data limitations, however, virtually all studies of the later- generation descendants of immigrants rely on subjective measures of ethnic self-identification rather than arguably more objective measures based on the countries of birth of the respondent and his ancestors. In this context, biases can arise from 'ethnic attrition' (e.g., U.S.-born individuals who do not self-identify as Hispanic despite having ancestors who were immigrants from a Spanish-speaking country). Analyzing 1994- 2010 data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), we present evidence that such ethnic attrition is sizeable and selective for the second- and third-generation populations of key Hispanic and Asian immigrant groups. In addition, our results suggest that ethnic attrition generates measurement biases that vary across national origin groups in direction as well as magnitude, and that correcting for these biases is likely to raise the socioeconomic standing of the U.S.-born descendants of most Hispanic immigrants relative to their Asian counterparts. Finally, although changes to the CPS Hispanic origin and race questions adopted in 2003 have substantially lowered attrition rates for second- and third- generation Hispanics and Asians, ethnic attrition remains a significant issue even with the improved questionnaire.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +44 (0)20 7679 5888
Fax: +44 (0)20 7916 2775
Web page: http://www.cream-migration.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2004. "Language Skills and Earnings: Evidence from Childhood Immigrants," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 481-496, May.
- Bisin, Alberto & Patacchini, Eleonora & Verdier, Thierry & Zenou, Yves, 2011.
"Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe,"
Research Papers in Economics
2011:2, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
- Alberto Bisin & Eleonora Patacchini & Thierry Verdier & Yves Zenou, 2011. "Ethnic identity and labour market outcomes of immigrants in Europe," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 26(01), pages 57-92, January.
- Bisin, Alberto & Patacchini, Eleonora & Verdier, Thierry & Zenou, Yves, 2011. "Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 8212, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Alberto Bisin & Eleonora Patacchini & Thierry Verdier & Yves Zenou, 2011. "Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1103, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Charles Hirschman, 2001. "The educational enrollment of immigrant youth: A test of the segmented-assimilation hypothesis," Demography, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 317-336, August.
- Alberto Bisin & Giorgio Topa & Thierry Verdier, 2004. "Religious Intermarriage and Socialization in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(3), pages 615-664, June.
- Delia Furtado, 2012.
"Human Capital And Interethnic Marriage Decisions,"
Western Economic Association International, vol. 50(1), pages 82-93, 01.
- Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2010.
"Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation among US Immigrants,"
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,
American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 165-92, January.
- Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2009. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0913, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Amelie Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2009.
"Work and Money: Payoffs by Ethnic Identity and Gender,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
908, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Constant, Amelie & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2009. "Work and Money: Payoffs by Ethnic Identity and Gender," CEPR Discussion Papers 7366, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2009. "Work and Money: Payoffs by Ethnic Identity and Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 4275, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Borjas, George J. (ed.), 2007. "Mexican Immigration to the United States," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226066325, December.
- Arthur Sakamoto & Huei-Hsia Wu & Jessie Tzeng, 2000. "The declining significance of race among American men during The latter half of the twentieth century," Demography, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 41-51, February.
- Mason, Patrick L., 2004. "Annual income, hourly wages, and identity Among Mexican Americans and other Latinos," MPRA Paper 11326, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Reynolds Farley, 1991. "The new census question about ancestry: What did it tell us?," Demography, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 411-429, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:crm:wpaper:1201. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CReAM Administrator)or (Thomas Cornelissen)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.